Victory Parade






Curator and Secretary of the Pennsylvania Museum

And School of Industrial Art.





In 1853 William Young, in connection with his son, Wm. Young, Jr., commenced the manufacture of earthenware in Trenton, in a small pottery leased from Charles Hattersley, which bad been built in the preceding year. For four years they made hardware porcelain, some china vases, pitchers of various kinds and a few dishes. In 1854 the pitcher, “Babes in the Wood,” and a small china vase were issued.

In 1857 a new pottery was started under the name of the Excelsior Pottery Works, which was operated by William Young & Sons (William, jr.,*Edward and John) until 1870, at which time William, Sr., withdrew, and for the following nine years the business was conducted by William Young’s Sons.

The marks used were, in 1858, an eagle; from 1858 to 1879, the English Arms.

William Young, Sr. learned the art in the pottery of John Ridgway, of Hanley, England. He afterwards went into business for himself and subsequently came to this country. At the Centennial Exposition the firm was awarded a bronze medal for superior goods. Their exhibit consisted of crock­ery, porcelain and hardware trimmings.


In 1879 the Willets Mfg. Co. came into possession of the works formerly operated by Wm. Young & Sons, and still retain them. The plant has since been extended from time to time, until it is now one of the largest in this country.

The marks used by the Willets Mfg. Co. are as follows: On stone china, the Arms of Great Britain. In 1884 a mono­gram was adopted, composed of the firm name, which was either impressed on white granite ware or applied in color. On their semi‑porcelain they have used an octagonal mark, and on table and toilet wares printed pattern marks have been used, such as “Arno,” “Duchess,” “Forget-me-not,” “Adelaide,” “Saratoga,” etc. On decorated Belleek china they have used two marks, formed of a serpent twisted to repre­sent the letter W, one having the word Belleek above. These are printed on the glaze in red, brown or black.

Other wares manufactured at different times by this company were thin and hotel white granite, majolica, porcelain door knobs and hardware trimmings and electric goods.


Messrs. Rhodes & Yates, of the City Pottery, Trenton, were the first in that place to manufacture white granite and cream-colored wares exclusively. They began in 1859, on the site of the old Hattersley Pottery, and in 1860 received a medal from the New Jersey State Agricultural Society for the best white granite ware. In 1865 the style became Yates & Titus. They were succeeded in 1871 by Messrs. Yates, Bennett & Allan. In the latter year the English mark was used in connection with their initials, Y. B. A. In 1875, when the City Pottery Co. was incorporated, the same mark, with the letters C. P. Co., was employed. In 1876 a new mark was introduced, a shield, bearing the same letters. In that year the company exhibited table and toilet wares at the Centennial Exposition. The pottery continued in operation for several years after that date.


Messrs. Stephens, Tanis & Co. established a pottery in Trenton in 1861. In 1868 they organized the Greenwood Potterv Co. From the latter date until 1875 the Arms of the, State of New Jersey were used as a mark for ironstone china or white granite. In the last-named year they added the legend which appears on the subjoined mark. The patent was on a scalloped dish which was produced at that time.

The initials of the company were stamped in the body of the first table porcelain made at this factory about the same period.

In 1886 the name “Greenwood China” was impressed in the body of table and toilet wares.

From 1883 to 1886 the mark used on art wares was suggested by the Royal Worcester mark. The figures in the centre (61) have reference to the date of the establishment of the factory. This mark was printed in purple on the ware, which had an ivory finish and raised gold decorations.

In 1886 the mark used on porcelain art ware was a modification of the above. It was printed in purple beneath the glaze.

This same device was also used on special orders of art goods for Messrs. Ovington Bros., of Brooklyn, N. Y., with the addition of their firm name.

The upper portion of this mark was also used alone, to some extent, on similar wares, of the Royal Worcester style.


In 1888 this company was producing china or white granite ware bearing printed portraits of the Presidential candidates. The mark then used consisted of the Arms of the State of New Jersey.

Later, the mark, “Opaque China, E. T. P. Co.,” was impressed in the paste.

On white granite ware the British lion and unicorn mark was also employed.

A variation of this device, with the lion and unicorn standing, was also in use. These appeared on toilet and table services printed in black beneath the glaze.


Richard Millington and John Astbury, under the style of Millington & Astbury, established a pottery in Carroll Street in 1853. In 1859 the firm name became Millington, Astbury & Poulson, They were making white ware goods in 1861. A large pitcher, with relief designs, illustrating the shooting of Col. E. E. Ellsworth, at Alexandria, Va., at the breaking out of the Civil War, bears their impressed mark, an ellipse with the initials of the firm name. This pitcher occurs both in white and in brilliant coloring. It was modeled by Josiah Jones, a noted modeler of the period. A modification of the same mark was sometimes stamped in their white granite ware. The colored examples were painted by Edward Lycett, a decorator of New York City.

The credit of modeling this jug has been claimed for others, but Mr. Thomas Maddock, who afterwards entered the firm, has settled the question by informing the writer that it was unquestionably the work of Mr. Jones.





About the year 1861, Mr. Poulson, of the above‑mentioned firm, died, and a Mr. Coughley took his interest in the concern. About 1869 Mr. Coughley died, and Mr. Thomas Maddock bought up his interest and also that of Mr. Millington, who then started the Eagle Pottery in the same city. In 1876 the firm was Astbury & Maddock. At the Centennial they exhibited sanitary earthenware and crockery for general use. Later Mr. Maddock became sole owner of the plant, and took his sons into partnership. The marks used by Thomas Maddock & Sons are: A circular ribbon containing the initials of the firm name and the date 1859, surmounted by a crown, which was used on dinner ware, and an anchor for sanitary earthenware.


This company dates from the year 1893, operating what is known as the Lamberton Works. Thornas Maddock & Sons, Moses Collear, C. A. May and Thomas P. Donoher are the stockholders. They manufacture fine grades of semi-porcelain in table and toilet wares.

The factory mark bears the name of the works. The mark for decorated china is a crown, while that for undecorated ware is the word CHINA, with the initials M (Maddock) and L (Lamberton) above and below.


John Maddock & Sons, of the Coalport Works, commenced the manufacture of steamship, car builders’ and plumbers’ earthenware and sanitary specialties of every description in 1894. Mr. John Maddock is a son of Mr. Thomas Maddock, of Thomas Maddock & Sons, having associated with him his own sons. Their marks are, for “Coalport” china, a four-leaf clover, which occurs in two varieties.


John Moses founded the Glasgow Pottery in 1863. The principal products have been white granite and cream-colored wares, thin hotel and steamboat china. Just previous to the Centennial large quantities of souvenir cups and saucers were made at this factory for the Centennial Tea Parties which were held in various parts of the country. The John Hancock cups and saucers were exceedingly popular, and many of them are preserved in collections today.

The Glasgow Pottery Co. exhibited at the Centennial stone china, decorated ware and majolica.

One of the earliest marks of the Glasgow Pottery was the name printed in black on white granite ware. A modification of this has recently been in use, by the John Moses & Sons Co., by which title the present firm is known.

Another mark used in 1876 was the American eagle and shield, on white granite.

A similar mark was used on semi-porcelain in 1878.

In 1880, a wreath enclosing the date was the mark for the same ware.

In 1882 white granite was marked “Glasgow China,” in a circle.

In 1884 the monogram of John Moses, surrounded by the name of the ware, was printed on white granite in black.

On the same grade of ware, in 1893, a diamond-shaped mark was printed.

An additional mark used by John Moses, on white granite, is here shown.

A circular mark was used on opaque porcelain.

The Arms of Great Britain was used by John Moses & Co. on ironstone china, or white granite.

The marks of John Moses & Sons Co. are several varieties of the British Coat of Arms for white granite, used from about 1895 to the present time.

Mark for vitrified china.

The various marks used by this firm on toilet and table services to indicate the patterns are as follows:

In 1899 the Glasgow Pottery made, by order of the United States Government, crockery for the use of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, on which was required to be printed the seal of the institution. The date on, the seal, March 3, 1865, is the date of the approval of the act of Congress establishing the Home.

The same firm manufactured ware for the Quartermaster's Department, which was stamped Q. M. D.

They were also the contracting potters for furnishing crock­ery for the United States Marine Corps, on which was stamped the letters U. S. M. C.

Special marks were also used for other branches of the Government service, such as the Navy and the Medical Board.

Other marks were placed on special orders of dealers in various parts of the country, of which the following are a few:


The Etruria Pottery dates back to 1863, in which year it was built by Messrs. Bloor, Ott & Booth. John Hart Brewer entered the firm in 1865, and the style soon after become Ott & Brewer.

The marks for white granite were variations of the British Coat of Arms.

Opaque china table wares were marked with a Maltese Cross surrounded by a ribbon, and occasionally with a circular rising sun device containing the firm name.

A common mark on table ware consisted of the initials of the firm name over the word “China.”

The monogram of the firm in a circle was placed on a fine grade of china.

Semi-porcelain ware was marked with a globe, and occasionally with a “Royal Crown.”

In 1876 this firm exhibited at the Centennial Exposition, attracting much attention through their Parian portrait busts and figure vases, which had been modeled by Prof. Isaac Broome. This firm was the first to commence the manufacture of Belleek ware in this country. In 1882 some workmen from the Irish Belleek works were brought over for this pur­pose, and the manufacture of thin egg‑shell china with luster glazes was established in Trenton.

Several marks were used on Etruria Belleek, among which are two varieties of the crown and sword, and two of the crescent, designs, which were printed over the glaze ill red or brown. Occasionally the same ware was marked "Manu­factured by Ott & Brewer, Trenton, N. J., U. S. A.," and again with the firm name in a circle. The initials of the firm were also used on fine Belleek ware about 1885.

The junior member of the firm was particularly active in experimenting in new bodies and developing the artistic fea­tures of the manufacture. Among the many different styles attempted were modeled vases in Belleek body with relief cactus decoration; pate-sur-pate work in which the designs were painted in white slip on colored grounds; cameo effects, produced by applying relief ornaments and portrait heads of one color to tinted bodies in different tones.

A few years ago this firm was succeeded by the Cook Pottery Co.


This company was organized in the early part of 1894, succeeding to the business of Messrs. Ott & Brewer. The officers are: Charles Howell Cook, President; F. G. Mellor, Vice-President and Treasurer, and James J. Mulheron, Secre­tary.

Their mark for C. C. ware was the British Lion and Uni­corn, with shield bearing the monogram of the Cook Pottery Co. with the name Mellor & Co. below. This mark was adopted for the purpose of avoiding any confusion between the products of this factory and the old Crescent Pottery, whose goods were then stamped “Cook & Hancock.”

A similar mark was used on white granite ware.

On porcelain dinner ware two marks were used, one composed of three feathers, the other a circle enclosing the com­bined names of Etruria and Mellor & Co.

A four-leaf clover distinguished their “Juno” shape in semi-vitreons china.

On Belleek ware the three feather mark was also used to some extent.

The Delft ware of the Cook Pottery Co. is the best imita­tion of the old Dutch faience which has been produced in this country. While the glaze is not stanniferous, it is an excellent simulation of the opaque enamel of Holland, and the tone of the blue color used in the decorations is a close ap­proach to the genuine Delft. The mark is an adaptation of an old Holland mark.

A special jug, made in commemoration of Admiral Dewey's victory at Manila, bears a circular mark with the date of patent, 1899.


Prof. Isaac Broome, modeler for Ott & Brewer, produce oil his own account some original ware in vitrified porcelain body in 1880. The body, the underglaze coloring and the glaze were thoroughly incorporated together, producing a soft, rich, mottled effect, different from any other ware pro­duced in America. Only about 100 pieces, mostly small vases, were made, and these were soon absorbed in private collections, and highly valued. They were marked with an arbitrary device, a modification of the sign of the planet Jupiter, similar to the mark on old Plymouth (England) porcelain. It was scratched in the body below the glaze.

Prof. Broome formerly modeled for the Providential Tile Works and the Trent Tile Co. of Trenton, N. J., and later for the Beaver Falls Art Tile Co. Many of his relief tile designs were marked on the face with his monogram, or with his name impressed.


The firm of Coxon & Co. was established in 1863, in Trenton, by Charles Coxon and J. F. Thompson. Mr. Coxon had been a modeler at the pottery of Edwin and William Bennett, Baltimore, for about twelve years. Their products were cream‑colored ware and white granite. The mark was a badge with the American eagle in the centre and the name of the firm in a ribbon beneath, printed in black under the glaze. Mr. Coxon died in 1868, and the pottery was operated for a time by his widow and four sons, John, Charles, Frank and Jonathan, all practical potters. In 1876 they made pieces decorated with printed views of some of the Centennial buildings. About 1884 the works were sold to Alpaugh & Magowan, who gave them the name of the Empire Pottery.


This company was incorporated in New Jersey in 1865. One of the marks used, on white granite, consisted of the initials of the company printed in black. In 1870 the style was changed to Taylor, Goodwin & Co.


The Mercer Pottery Co. was organized in 1868. James Moses, the head of the company, claims to have been the first to make semi‑porcelain ware in this country. The double shield mark, formerly used by this company, was the same as that employed by the firms of Carr & Clark and Burgess & Campbell (which see). It was also used at the New York City Pottery by Mr. Carr, as will be seen. When the Inter­national Pottery Co. was organized in 1879 by Messrs. Carr and Clark, assisted by John and James Moses, the double shield was adopted as being an appropriate design for the name of the company, Mr. Clark being an English potter and James Moses an American. The same shapes were being made at the Mercer and International Potteries and the goods were interchangeable. Hence the same mark was used by each, the only difference being in the name printed beneath. In September of the same year Messrs. Burgess & Campbell bought the interest of Carr & Clark and substituted their names beneath the trade‑mark.

Other marks are a globe impresscd on white granite ware.

The name of the pottery, impressed.

The initials of the pottery on ironstone china or white granite.

A shield on semi-vitreous china, with printed decorations.


The monogram of the Company.

The following occur on various patterns of table and toilet services:


The New Jersey Pottery Co. was organized in 1869, at Trenton, and in 1883 the name was changed to the Union Pottery Co. The products were cream-colored and white granite wares. During the Presidential campaign of 1880 this company issued a series of plates with overglaze printed portraits of the candidates. The mark was printed in black beneath the glaze.


Henry Speeler established the International Pottery in 1860, and in 1868 admitted to partnership his two sons, under the name of Henry Speeler & Sons.

Edward Clark and James Carr purchased the Speeler* works, and in 1879 organized the Lincoln Pottery Co. A mark was adopted, with the name of the firm, Carr & Clark, beneath. A few months later the style was changed, and the same mark was continued after the reorganization by the International Pottery Co. The names of Burgess & Campbell, their successors, were substituted (see also James Carr, and the Mercer Pottery Co.).
On certain patterns of underglaze ware a circular stamp was impressed in semi-porcelain.

Another mark ("International China") was used on the same grade of ware.

On semi-porcelain table ware with blue decorations be­neath the glaze, the “Royal Blue” marks were printed in the same color.

* The Speeler Pottery Co. exhibited yellow and Rockingham ware at the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876.

A similar mark was used on toilet and dinner ware of the “Balmoral” pattern.

Pattern marks were used on toilet and table wares, such as “Albany,” “Japonica,” “Lotus” and “Diamond.”

After the withdrawal of Mr. Campbell, the style became Burgess & Co. The mark used on “Royal China” in 1903 is a crown in a circle


On “Wilton” china, of the same pattern as the “Royal Blue,” decorated in “still blue” and gray underglaze.

Two additional marks were sometimes placed on “Royal Blue” ware.

On the “Rugby” pattern, made in “Flint China,” a grade of ware between white granite and porcelain, two marks were printed in brown.

Late marks of the International Pottery Co. used on semi-­vitreous porcelain represent a Maltese cross.


In 1876 the American Crockery Co. was manufacturing bisque and white granite wares, in which year an exhibit was made at the Centennial Exposition. The mark used on white granite was the English Lion and Unicorn, with the initials of the company beneath. This mark, printed in black, occurs on a small milk jug, decorated with a printed view of old Independence Hall, Philadelphia, now in the Pennsylvania Museum.

On a water jug, with transfer prints of Horticultural Hall and the Agricultural Building of the Centennial produced at the same period, is found the eagle and monogram mark, here given, which is printed in black beneath the glaze.

About 1890 the mark used by this company on white granite ware was printed in black.


The Burroughs & Mountford Co. began business in Tren­ton in 1879, in the Eagle Pottery, erected in 1876 by Richard Millington. They produced a large line of table and toilet wares and a number of characteristic styles of art wares, in bold ornamentation and harmonious coloring. Some of their larger vases, painted by a Japanese artist in their employ, were among the finest pieces of the kind ever produced in this country. This firm discontinued business several years ago.

The globe mark was used on decorated wares, in “cretonne” patterns.

The “Honiton” mark appeared on a tea service with printed decorations.

The Crown mark and the initials of the firm were used on various grades of white granite and C. C. wares with printed decorations.

The “Extra Quality” mark was impressed in white granite table ware. It occurs on a plate bearing the decorative mark of the Harker Pottery Co., of East Liverpool, Ohio.


In 1880 Messrs. Dale & Davis established the Prospect Hill Pottery, and continued to manufacture decorated semi-porcelain and white granite dinner and toilet wares until about 1894. Their earliest mark for white granite was the Arms of Great Britain. Later they used the initials of the firm name. Previous to this partnership, from about 1875 to 1880, Isaac Davis was in business alone, and in 1876 made an ex­hibit of white granite ware at the Centennial Exposition. The lion and unicorn mark was used on print-decorated ware with views of historic American buildings. A bread plate in the Pennsylvania Museum, with view of Horticultural Hall, one of the Centennial buildings, bears this mark.

A similar mark was used on a patent in 1879.

The mark for opaque porcelain was a draped shield bearing the figure of an eagle.



This pottery was established by James E. Norris, about 1894. The earlier marks were a modification of the British Arms and an anchor enclosed in a circle.

Since 1898 the three following marks have been in use, the last two bearing the names of patterns or shapes.

The later marks of this pottery, used on semi-porcelain ware, are shown below.



Messrs. Oliphant & Co. operated The Delaware Pottery between 1884 and 1895. The two marks here figured were printed in black, or impressed on cups, druggists’ mortars, etc. A limited amount of Belleek porcelain was also made at one time by this firm (see also The Trenton Potteries Co.).




The Crescent Pottery Co. was organized in 1881 by Charles H. Cook and W. S. Hancock, for the manufacture of sanitary earthenware, white granite and C. C. wares.

In 1885, their marks were the Coat of Arms of the State of New Jersey, and a lion’s head in a circular garter, on white granite dinner ware.

About 1890, the lion mark, printed in black on white granite, or “Paris White” ware, was in use.

In 1890, the “Dainty” pattern mark was used.

In 1896, the “Melloria” pattern was issued.

From 1896 to 1898, the “Melloria” and “Dainty” marks were placed on semi-granite dinner ware.

In the latter year the “Dainty” and “Severn” marks were used.

From 1899 to 1902 the globe, supported by a lion and uni­corn, formed one of the factory marks for semi-granite dinner ware.

The “Utopia” mark was placed on underglaze decorated dinner ware from 1900 to 1902.

The same mark was used in 1901 on the “Alpha” pattern, in underglaze dinner and tea services (see also The Trenton Potteries Co.).


This pottery was established by Messrs. Coxon & Thompson in 1863. About 1884 it passed into the hands of Messrs. Alpaugh & Magowan, whose products were thin porcelain, dinner, tea and toilet wares, and decorated wares, princi­pally in white granite body. They also made sanitary and plumbers’ earthenware. One of the earliest marks used by the latter firm was the British Coat of Arms, which was placed on all their general ware.

In Wood & Barlow’s time, the “Imperial China” mark was in use.

About 1892 a wreath enclosing the monogram T. P. Co. was used (see also The Trenton Potteries Co.).



The Enterprise Pottery was started previous to 1880, for the manufacture of sanitary ware. The mark in use from the beginning until 1892 was the name of the company (see also The Trenton Potteries Co.). Gen. Oliphant, who with three of his sons afterwards operated the Delaware Pottery, was connected with the Enterprise Pottery previous to 1884.



In 1892, The Trenton Potteries Co. was organized by the consolidation of five sanitary ware establishments, - The Crescent, The Delaware, The Empire, The Enterprise and The Equitable. Later the Ideal Pottery was erected.

The mark used by the consolidated company is a star. The numeral in the star indicates the plant where the ware was produced, as 1, Crescent; 2, Delaware; 3, Empire; 4, Enterprise; 5, Equitable; 6, Ideal. For example, the plain star enclosing the initials T. P. Co., and the number, 2, was used on the regular sanitary ware of the Delaware Pottery. On all vitreous goods made since 1892 at this establishment is placed a circle surrounding the star, with the name of the ware.

A similar mark, bearing the figure 3, is used on vitreous ware of the Empire plant.

On the sanitary ware of the Enterprise Pottery since 1892 the plain star appears, while on vitreous china the mark is similar to the above with the figure 4 substituted.

The same mark, with the figure 5 in the star, is used on ware produced at the Equitable plant.

The mark of the Ideal Pottery bears the name instead of a number.

An exhibit was sent to the Paris Exposition of 1900 by The Trenton Potteries Co., which was awarded two gold medals. The pieces were marked with the company’s name and address.

The Crescent Pottery, operated by The Trenton Potteries Co., in 1896 used on Hotel china a similar mark with the name of the consolidated company in full.

In 1891, the initials only were used on vitreous china dinner ware, both thick and thin, produced at the Crescent plant.



The Bellmark Pottery Co. was formed in 1893. The products are plumbers’ and druggists’ earthenware. The mark used on these wares is a bell.



The Fell & Thropp Co, operated the old Taylor & Speeler pottery, known as the Trenton Pottery. It was, until a few years ago, owned by Samuel E. Thropp and J. Hart Brewer, the products being C. C. and white granite wares.

The marks are the Arms of New Jersey. On white granite ware, the British Arms. A tiger’s head.



The marks of the Trenton Pottery Works are, for semi­-granite or white granite, the Arms of the State of New Jersey.

For opaque porcelain a shield with crossed swords and drapery.


The Keystone Pottery Co. manufactures vitreous china sanitary ware and specialties, which are marked with a key­stone enclosed in a wreath.


The Star Porcelain Co., of Trenton, manufactures elec­trical specialties in porcelain, employing the marks shown here. About one-half of the product, however, is not so marked, but is stamped with the numbers and names of the parties for whom the goods are made.


The Ceramic Art Co. came into existence in Trenton in 1889, with Jonathan Coxon, Sr., president, and Walter D. Lenox, secretary and treasurer. Their products have always been fine art wares in Belleek and other bodies, either deco­rated artistically, by the best painters or produced in the white state for amateur and professional decorators. The marks which have been used by this company at different times, which are transferred to the ware from copperplates, are as follows:

On undecorated pieces, the initials of the Company and a painter’s palette, printed in purple and other colors.

On undecorated ware, called “Indian China,” previous to 1895, an Indian’s head.

On special decorative work for the trade, a wreath enclos­ing the full name of the Company.

A special mark, on ware for decorators, used in 1897.

On decorated ware at the present time, a wreath enclosing the Company’s initials.

Mr. Lenox is now president of the company. Their most recent productions are overglaze flower designs on Belleek vases and lamps, mounted in gold-plated metal.



The Trenton China Co. was started in 1859. One of their special productions was a fine grade of vitrified china, white and decorated. This pottery was closed in 1891.

The accompanying mark was impressed on table ware.



The American Art China Works of Messrs. Rittenhouse, Evans & Co. were established in Trenton in 1891. Their specialty was a thin art ware called American china, plain white and decorated.


During the year of the World’s Columbian Exposition at Chicago, Messrs. Morris & Willmore established the Colum­bian Art Pottery, at Trenton, for the manufacture of table and toilet china and art wares in Belleek body.

The shield mark is printed on Belleek porcelain. The name of the company appears on other wares. On some of their specialties, such as toby jugs in Belleek body and also in opaque china, a miniature copy of the old Liberty bell in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, and other souvenir pieces, the names of customers are also occasionally printed.

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