Victory Parade


Charitable Institutions, Public Welfare and Social Agencies


THE following sketches of the charitable institutions and social agencies of Trenton do not include those exclusively connected with particular churches, but deal only with those of a public or semi-public character. The information here given is derived in the main directly from the officials of the various organizations who in response to requests made by the compiler have kindly furnished the facts concerning their respective institutions and societies.

During the long history of Trenton many charitable organizations and public welfare associations have arisen and after functioning for a longer or shorter period have gone out of existence owing either to a change in conditions or the lack of public support. On account of space it has not been possible to mention such except in two or three notable instances.

It will be seen from a perusal of this section that Trenton is singularly fortunate in possessing so many strong institutions ministering in various ways to the public welfare. Probably there are few cities of its size that maintain more or better equipped agencies providing for the diverse needs of its peoples.

Professional social workers representing some forty separate social-service organizations are combined in a society, the Social Workers Club, which holds stated meetings for the interchange of information and for the general benefit of its members.

In recent years particularly the citizens of Trenton have responded in a spirit of unbounded generosity to the needs of its larger institutions as evidenced by the successful public campaigns undertaken from time to time in their behalf. Thus the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. have been enabled to erect their present imposing buildings as the result of such campaigns and St. Francis, Mercer, McKinley and the Orthopaedic Hospitals have also benefited greatly from similar campaigns. It is safe to say by this method alone over three million dollars for the permanent betterment of these institutions have been secured, all within the last decade.


The personnel of the officers connected with the various organizations may possibly have undergone some changes since the record was in type.

I. Hospitals


This institution is located on the left bank of the Delaware River, about two miles northwest of the City Hall.

In 1844 a commission was appointed, chiefly through the earnest efforts of Dr. Lyndon A. Smith, of Essex, and Dr. Lewis Condict, of Morris, and the eminent philanthropist, Miss Dorothea Lynde Dix, to select a site. An appropriation of $35,000 was made to purchase the land and to commence the erection of the building. Work was begun on the main building in November 1845, and the hospital was opened for the reception of patients in May 1848. Numerous additions have been made from time to time to the original building.

From 1887 to the present time the Legislature has made large appropriations for the erection of new buildings as the needs arose and for the repairing and modernizing of older structures. Through the operation of the half‑mill tax for State institutions the State Hospital will receive nearly $800,000 for new buildings, some of which are now in course of erection. Since 1908 there has been no mechanical restraint of any kind used in the hospital, All restraint apparatus, chairs, strait‑jackets, straps, etc., have been removed from the hospital building, and are no longer used.

The institution possesses a library, one of the largest, if not the largest, in this country, connected with a hospital for the insane. The books are accessible to all members of the household. The library now consists of about four thousand volumes, and is the result of the bequest of a former nurse (Anne Robinson), who by will bequeathed her earnings for several years as a nurse and attendant in the hospital.

During the year 1898 a handsome amusement room, capable of seating about four hundred, was finished; also, a large and commodious chapel, in which religious exercises are held every Sunday, when various clergymen, without regard to denominational preference, officiate. The chapel is capable of seating about five hundred patients.

In recent years two farms in the neighborhood of Trenton junction have been acquired thus adding two hundred and fifty acres to the ample grounds of the estate. The hospital has a complete surgical plant and the Legislature has provided ample funds for research work. The hospital today is one of the best equipped in the whole country and holds the highest rank among similar institutions. The institution is conducted by a board of seven managers appointed by the governor. The medical director since 1907 has been Dr. Henry A. Cotton, whom remarkable success in treating cases of “focal infection” has brought him a wide reputation both at home and abroad. The warden is Samuel T. Atchley. The number of inmates is about two thousand five hundred with a small army of attendants and trained nurses, for whose instruction the hospital maintains its own school. Private patients are also treated to the number of several hundred.'

' See New Jersey Legislative Manual, 1927.


Sister Mary Hyacintha, the venerable foundress of St. Francis' Hospital, came to Trenton in 1869 to take charge of a school mission on Front Street. Three teachers (sisters) accompanied her, who taught in St. Francis' School for several years.

The first home was a modest little house located at Market and Cooper Streets. While no patients were actually taken into the house, the sisters stationed there went out to care for the sick. As the work grew, Sister Hyacintha and her associates went forth to solicit funds until a sufficient amount was realized to erect what is now the central building of the present St. Francis' Hospital.

It was first intended to erect the hospital at the corner of Market and Cooper Streets, where ground had already been secured for this purpose, but objection having been raised to this location as being unsuitable for the purpose, the present property was obtained in 1870 from Samuel K. Wilson for the sum of $1,800. When $500, which was all the cash available at that time, had been paid on the lot, Mr. Wilson generously remitted the remaining $1,300 as representing his donation to the hospital fund.

The cornerstone of St. Francis' Hospital was laid on October 15, 1871, by the Right Rev. Monsignor Graelli, delegated by Bishop Bayley. Owing to a lack of sufficient funds, building operations progressed slowly. In January 1874, Sister Hyacintha and two companions, Sister Cecelia and Sister Mary Paul, took up their residence in the unfinished building. The hospital was dedicated by Bishop Corrigan of Newark; May 31, 1874.

The original building was erected at a cost of $38,000 and in 1888 additional ground representing the block where the hospital is situated was purchased for $20,000. Subsequently an addition containing rooms and a new chapel was erected by Sister M. Hyacintha. Recently, while Sister M. Fulgentia was superior, new wings and a sun-parlor were built. The sun-parlor was subsequently converted into bedrooms because of the increased demand for accommodations.

Until the erection of the Municipal Colony, about ten years ago, victims of contagious diseases were cared for in St. Joseph's House, a small building erected in 1890 on the ground in the rear of the hospital.

St. Francis' Hospital was the first hospital established in Trenton and for a long time it served both in that capacity and as a home for the aged and incurably afflicted.

Among those who in the early days gave their generous financial help to the Sisters were John Curran, Edward H. Stokes, Samuel K. Wilson and the Roebling family, the latter of whom has always been a generous benefactor of the institution, and such assistance has in many instances enabled it to meet its increasing needs. A bequest of $60,000 was received under the will of the late Henry C. Kelsey.

As the result of the recent financial campaign held in the interest of the hospital the sum of $588,000 was secured. A fine nurses' home was erected and other additions are now in course of construction. There are 255 beds in the old building and 29 private rooms. The new wing when completed will bring the number of beds up to 316 and private rooms to 50. The heads of the surgical department are Drs. M. W. Reddan, George N. J. Sommer and E. L. West. Of the medical department the heads are Drs. J. J. McGuire, W. L. Collier and E. T. R. Applegate. Besides these there are some thirty other physicians and surgeons working in special departments connected with the hospital. The hospital has an efficient Womern’s Aid of which the following are the officers: Mrs. Joseph F. Ribsam, honorary president; Mrs. G. N. J. Sommer, president; Mrs. Martin W. Reddan, first vice-president; Mrs. Bertha Block, second vice-president; Mrs. Bentley H. Pope, third vice-president; Mrs. Anita Stephan, secretary; Mrs. C. Richard Waller, treasurer; and Mrs. J. Ferdinand Convery, assistant treasurer.


A movement toward the establishment of a Protestant hospital of the allopathic school of treatment was made in 188, when a certificate of organization of the "Trenton Hospital," bearing date of the nineteenth of November, 1888, was recorded in the office of the clerk of Mercer County.

The corporation thus formed never acquired any property, nor did the board of directors ever organize. The subject of erecting a new hospital in Trenton continued to be agitated from time to time, especially by Dr. W. W. L. Phillips, who took a great interest in the establishment of the hospital. In the month of February 1892, Mrs. Louisa Fisk widow of Harvey Fisk, Esq., and her son, Harvey Edward Fisk made a proposition to aid the enterprise by the conveyance of desirable lots of land on Bellevue and Rutherford Avenues, as a site for the proposed new hospital. Dr. Phillips thereupon addressed a circular letter to the corporation of the Trenton Hospital, and certain other persons interested in the enterprise.

In response to that letter, the following gentlemen met at the house of Dr. Phillips on the evening of March 8; Dr. W. W. L. Phillips, the Right Rev. John Scarborough, D.D., the Rev. John Dixon, D.D., Judge William S. Yard, Messrs. Samuel K. Wilson, Charles E. Green, William L. Dayton, Richard P. Wilson, Elmer E. Green, John H. Scudder, Samuel S, Webber, Frank O. Briggs, and William M. Lanning. Bishop Scarborough was chairman, and Mr. Briggs secretary, of the meeting. The offer of the Fisk family to provide the land for a new hospital was accepted and it was decided that a new hospital corporation be organized tinder the name of "The Mercer Hospital," fifteen men were elected as directors to manage the affairs for the first years of its existence. An incorporation was effected on April 14, 1892. The incorporators were Jonathan H. Blackwell, John H. Scudder, Samuel K. Wilson, Charles E. Green, John Scarborough, Henry Stafford Little, Frank A. Magowan, Dr. William W. L. Phillips, William M. Lanning, Elmer Ewing Green, William S. Yard, William L Dayton. William Young, John C. Smock, John Dixon, Richard P. Wilson, Frank O. Briggs, Samuel S. Webber, Barker Gummere, William H. Skirm, Hugh H. Hamill, Dr. Ezra M. Hunt, A. G. Richey, William Hancock, Charles P. Britton, William H. Brokaw, E. Gibbon Slipsbury, John Hall, James H. Wikoff, Foster C. Griffith and James M. Forst.

At a later meeting William L. Dayton was elected president; Hugh H. Hamill, vice-president; Elmer Ewing Green, treasurer; and Edward Grant Cook, secretary. On January 16, 1893, it was announced that nearly $15,000 had been subscribed towards erecting a building.

The hospital was formally opened March 20, 1895, having a capacity of thirty beds. A house on Rutherford Avenue conveyed to the hospital by Harvey E. Fisk was fitted up for the use of nurses and for laundry purposes. The need for further accommodations grew so urgent that in 1902 contracts amounting to $325,000 Were made and a three-story and basement extension of 73 feet was built increasing the capacity of the hospital to one hundred beds. A laundry building with dormitories for domestic help was also constructed, the whole being opened for use October 3, 1902. In 1909 William J. Morris, as an expression of thankfulness for treatment received, at his own cost built a two-story brick addition, providing space for an X-ray department fully equipped, above a fine room for patients with a bathroom attached. The Hancock Extension of 71 feet, erected at the sole charge and expense of William S. Hancock, was opened May 1, 1912, and increased the capacity of the hospital to 170 beds. The third floor of the administration building was made a free maternity ward and additional quarters for nurses were provided by purchase of a house on Rutherford Avenue. In 1922 a power-house and central heating plant were built, also a laundry fully equipped. In 1926 a nurses' home was built and fully equipped. The same year the "Dayton Memorial," a maternity building of 74 beds, made possible by a gift of $100,000 from James B. Dayton, was also completed. A service building 50 x 72, of two stories and basement, is in course of construction.

The hospital maintains a training school for nurses and a supervising staff with a present enrolment of 63 students. The hospital is one approved by the American College of Surgeons, and is a member of the American Hospital Association. The number of patients received in the twelve months ending January 3, 1928, was 3,503, of whom 1,662 were general ward patients. The hospital grounds extend 429 feet on Bellevue Avenue, running through to Rutherford Avenue with frontage thereon of three hundred and fifty feet.

The officers of the institution are Horace B. Tobin, president; Nelson L. Petty, vice-president; Walter F. Volk, treasurer; Henry C. Blackwell, secretary.

The chief of the medical staff is Dr. Fred S. Watson and of the surgical staff Dr. Nelson B. Oliphant. The Women's Aid of the hospital, divided in various committees, is composed of prominent women and is doing most effective work. The officers are Mrs. W. S. Case, president, with several vice-presidents; Miss Edith Packer, treasurer; Mrs. Henry C. Blackwell, recording secretary; and Mrs. Richard R. Whitehead, corresponding secretary.


The William McKinley Memorial Hospital was the outgrowth of a movement to establish a homeopathic dispensary. On March 10, 1887, a meeting of doctors interested was held at 6 North Stockton Street, at the home of Mr. Wilson Pierson, attended by the following: Drs. F. H. Williams, James R. Cooper, Eugene B. Witte, William T. Rogers, William G. McCullough and William H. Griffith.

In 1889 parcels of land on Brunswick Avenue were purchased, composing approximately six acres. The old farm property upon which the house stood, known as the "Thomas B. DeCou property," was used as the first hospital and was named "The City Hospital."

In 1900 the directors, consisting of Drs. F. H. Williams. W. G. McCullough, James Rudolph Cooper, W. T. Rogers, E. B. Witte and W. H Griffith, started to erect a new brick hospital which, when completed September 1902, was renamed and reincorporated as "The William McKinley Memorial Hospital."

The hospital proving too small for the growing needs, in 1924 it was determined to add a new wing and a public campaign and drive was started for $200,000 to build it. This was successful and the new building was opened to the public October 1, 1925. The cost was over $250,000.

In 1919 a new nurses' home was built on the northwestern corner of the hospital property. This was made possible by a benefaction of some $50,000 received by bequest from Henry C. Kelsey. The training school was the first of its kind in the city of Trenton, and since its incorporation it 1899 has graduated 135 nurses.

The present officers of the institution are Newton A. K. Bugbee, president; Samuel Haverstick, vice-president; Charles F. Stout. secretary; J. Edward Myers, treasurer; and William B. Kents, superintendent. There is also an efficient Women's Aid. The hospital has a bed capacity of 145, including 29 private rooms.


The city of Trenton cares for its city dependents, its sick and afflicted and its sufferers from contagious diseases, at the Trenton Municipal Colony.

In 1911, upon the establishment of commission government, the board of commissioners of the city of Trenton ratified the general plan for the creation of the Colony as formulated by Mayor Frederick W. Donnelly. A group of hospitals and homes was established with municipal funds appropriated by the commissioners, under the original plan, with the result that the Colony has become recognized for its attainments as a medical, humanitarian, sociological and civic achievement.

The Colony comprises the Home for the Aged and Infirm, the Tuberculosis Hospital, the Children's Hospital for Contagious Diseases, designated as the "Contagion Hospital," the Venereal Hospital, or Urology Hospital, the Isolation Hospital, Nurses' Home, Medical Superintendent's Cottage, and Non-Professional Staff Cottage, These buildings are of modern construction and occupy a fifteen-acre tract a short distance outside of the city limits in Hamilton township. Other buildings connected with the institution are the boiler-house and laundry, stables, garage and a small building used as a crafts-shop for occupational therapy, where patients may engage in useful labor. The cost of erecting the buildings was $445,000. Since their purchase by the city the Colony lands have more than doubled in value.

A total of 347 beds for patients is provided, a surplus being required for future needs and also to take care of an epidemic outbreak in the city. Since its inception the Municipal Colony has taken care of hundreds of cases which, because of their contagious or chronic character, could not be admitted to the local hospitals.

In 1917 fire destroyed the old Tuberculosis Hospital and the splendid modern structure that was erected in its place has achieved a country-wide reputation for its care of tuberculosis cases.

The Home for the Aged and Infirm, which has housed 1,110 inmates since its erection, is a modern building that cares for the homeless dependents of the city of Trenton. Previous to its erection the city cared for its poor in the old and run-down almshouse on Princeton Avenue which occupied the present site of Junior High School No. 1, the money reverting from the school appropriation for this land being used toward defraying the cost of erecting the present Colony Home. The sick inmates of this building are cared for in an infirmary, and the living, sleeping and diningrooms are large, airy and clean. Part of this building has been remodelled for the care of advanced cancer patients, and an enclosed porch provided.

The Children's Hospital for contagious diseases is one of the most important of the Colony hospitals, since it specializes in the treatment of children suffering from contagious diseases. Special corps of nurses and physicians are in attendance, and every facility and means to aid the little sufferers in their fight for recovery are provided in this institution. Diphtheria, scarlet fever and other virulent diseases are treated here, and the adult cases of contagion are cared for in a separate unit in this hospital. During the past nine years the Children's hospital has cared for 2,089 cases.

The Venereal or Urology Hospital was erected in response to the federal government's call to cities to combat the spread of social diseases, and in construction and equipment conforms to the plans recommended by the United States Public Health Department. The service of this hospital has proven to be of great value in its relation to the public health conditions of Trenton. During the past five years 252 patients have been treated in this unit.

Patients suffering from smallpox and other malignant diseases are cared for in the Isolation Hospital. For many a year Trenton has been spared an outbreak of pestilence by the segregation of smallpox patients in this unit and a city‑wide outbreak averted. In 1924 every one of the twenty-five smallpox patients isolated in this hospital recovered from the disease. The Isolation Hospital is always kept in readiness for malignant disease cases.

An occupational therapy building is maintained where patients are given an opportunity of doing light manual work, which has resulted in many instances in a marked mental and physical improvement. Artistic lamps and furniture are made, as well as institutional repair work done, resulting in an income to the patient-workers and a saving to the city.

The Colony has its own modern laundry, including a sterilizing plant used for the disinfection of clothing and bedding; a central heating and hot-water plant; a refrigerating plant; and an incineration plant. A day-and-night ambulance service is also maintained.

Trenton's leading physicians compose the medical staff of the Colony and direct the medical policy of the institution. Regular visits to the Colony hospitals are made by the members of the staff who serve without pay. Eighteen nurses live in the Nurses' Home.

A stone monument has been erected on the grounds of the hospital bearing the following inscription:

"An Arm of Aid to the Weak, A Friendly Hand to the Friendless."

Conceived by Mayor Frederick W. Donnelly in 1911.

Erection of Buildings Carried on Under the Administration of Commissioners Edward W. Lee, George B. La Barre, J. Ridgway Fell, William F. Burk, George W. Page, Abram Swan, Jr,


The Orthopaedic Hospital had its beginning in a small way. As far back as 1907 a group of women who had formed a small club, meeting together occasionally for recreation, decided to take up some form of charitable work, and after investigation concluded that a district nurse was much needed in Trenton and set about raising the necessary funds. Various entertainments were given by which enough money was raised to begin. A competent nurse was engaged and a small apartment rented at 138 Allen Street. The members of the committee at the time the district nurse committee was formed were: Mrs. Bruce Bedford, Mrs. Josiah Harmar, Mrs. Charles L. Hyde, Miss Frances M. Dickinson, Mrs. William R. Green, Mrs. Ferdinand W. Roebling, Jr., Mrs. Richard M. Cadwalader, Jr., Miss Marjorie Slade, Mrs. William S. Rogers, Mrs. Karl G. Roebling, Mrs. William T. White, Mrs. W. Meredith Dickinson, Mrs. Carroll S. Tyson, Jr., and Mrs. Henry E. Mattison. The work grew and prospered and in the summer of 1912 the nurse established a pure milk station, where milk was prepared and distributed to babies of the needy. The mothers paid a small fee when possible. In 1917 the work of the visiting nurse was discontinued, owing to the fact that the city was doing work of the same character. The next nurse employed was a social worker and organizer, and established the Child Hygiene Station where mothers were instructed in the care of their babies. The committee also undertook to care for children who were, in a slight degree, mentally deficient.

The first work in the city for tuberculosis sufferers was done by this committee. They sold Christmas stamps and the nurse visited in the homes of the patients, until 1912 when the Municipal Hospital was opened, and the city provided for such cases.

After the epidemic of infantile paralysis in 1916, there were many children who were crippled as a result of that disease, and the need for expert advice was felt. In 1920 Dr. Richard B. Ernest came from the New York Orthopaedic Hospital to hold clinics for the cripples in the small rooms on Allen Street, The number of patients increased rapidly and it was found necessary to move to larger quarters. The first-floor apartment at 165 East Front Street was secured, and later the second floor, as a hospital. It was incorporated April 1920, the following names being signed to papers of incorporation: Mathilde H. Bedford, Sophia M. Kennedy, Charlotte McG. Whitehead, Frances M. Dickinson, Annie F. Green.

The little hospital was opened with seven beds, August 1922, with Dr. Richard B. Ernest surgeon in charge. Within a few months there were more patients than could be accommodated and the committee decided it was time to buy property. The two large houses at 177 and 179 Brunswick Avenue were bought by Mr. Ferdinand W. Roebling, Jr., and given to the hospital as a memorial to his father. The buildings were completely remodelled, and the vacant lot adjoining was given by Mrs. Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. The new hospital was formally dedicated on February 25, 1924. There are twenty-three beds, four private rooms, a fine operating room, gymnasium and X‑ray apparatus. It cares for many children also who come from their homes twice each week for treatment. Two welfare nurses are employed who visit the homes of the patients.

In 1926 the third floor was altered into wards for men and boys over sixteen years of age. A small house nearby, 32 Cavell Avenue, was bought for a nurses' home. Another addition is now being built. The president since 1922 has been Mrs. Charles E. Gummere and the executive chairman of the hospital is Mrs. W. M. Dickinson.


The Charles Private Hospital started as a small nursing home at 56 North Clinton Avenue, but soon outgrew its quarters and a small but fully equipped hospital building of four stories was occupied at 142 North Clinton Avenue. The hospital has fifty rooms with individual dining-rooms and bathrooms. Medical and surgical cases of all sorts are treated. The superintendent is Miss Grace Fields.


The Chambersburg General Hospital was built by Dr. Gesa M. Frank during 1926 and was operated as a private hospital until July 31, 1927. Since that time the hospital has been conducted by the board of trustees of the Chambersburg General Hospital, a corporation chartered by the State of New Jersey, as a public hospital. The officers of the corporation are: Leon W. Goldy, president; Louis C. Kersey, treasurer; Edward Whitehouse, vice-president; Harry Ackerman, secretary. The medical director is Dr. William M. Stratton.

The institution is equipped with twenty-five beds, minor and major operating room, fully equipped X-ray room, maternity delivery room and sterilizing room. Free patients are cared for, and various other charities are practised by the institution.


II. Homes


This institution was founded in the early ‘50’s and incorporated in 1855. Its foundation was largely due to the initiative of the Ewing and Green families.

The first officers were Mrs. Mary Johnston, first directress; Mrs. Louisa V. Krewson, second directress; Miss Juliet Phillips, secretary; and Mrs. E. W. Ihrie, treasurer. Among the managers were the following: Miss Mary Hall, Mrs. E. I. Grant, Miss Elizabeth Stryker, Mrs. David Clark, Miss Catharine Dill, Mrs. Henry W. Green, Mrs. Lewis Parker, Mrs. Lewis Perrine and Mrs. Mary Armstrong. Among the men associated as an advisory committee were James T. Sherman, James Ewing, Thomas J. Stryker and Charles C. Yard. The title by which the association was orig­inatty known was "Trenton Society for the Relief of Respectable Aged and Indigent Widows and Single Women." Any person contributing not less than $3 annually was considered a member; the payment of $30 at one time constituted a life membership and the payment of $100 at one time made a person a patron. Rules laid down for applicants provided that $40 be paid down as admission and that the applicants provide themselves with bed, bedding and furniture, otherwise $50 must be paid on their admission. The age of applicants must not be under fifty years. Persons seeking admission were required to make over all their property to the Home. Inmates were required to make their own beds and care for their rooms also, and if capable, to assist in domestic duties and to sew and knit. No stimulant or spirituous liquors were permitted except by order of the physician, and no profane or improper language was allowed. No person was allowed to interfere with or find fault with the matron.

The interest of many charitable persons having been enlisted, the association was soon able to purchase a permanent home in a portion of the Old Barracks where it remained until it built and occupied its present modern and commodious quarters. The Spring Street tract was a gift from Judge Caleb S. Green. In 1869 a bequest of $30,000 was received from John A. Roebling. This sum as a nucleus, together with other contributions including benefactions from N. R. Ivins and Walter S. Lenox, enabled the institution to erect its present home in 1902.

The institution is sustained by the dues of its members and the gifts of others. In addition the inmates each pay $300 as an admittance fee. Before the War an annual supper was held in the home from which a substantial fund was received. Since that time an annual donation day has taken its place, when money is given and supplies provided by friends of the institution. The home has accommodations for some twenty or more persons and there is always a long waiting list.

The president of the institution is Mrs. John H. Scudder, and among other prominent women associated with her are: Mrs. John A. Campbell, Mrs. Daniel J. Bechtel, Mrs. Charles Stuckert, Mrs. William H. Brokaw, Mrs. Arthur H. Wood, Mrs. James J. Wilson, Mrs. W. J. B. Stokes, Mrs. C. Edward Murray, Mrs. Horace B. Tobin, Mrs. Isaac G. Wood and Mrs. George W. Arnett.


The full name of this institution as given in the act of incorporation is the Union Industrial Home Association for Destitute Children of Trenton, New Jersey. The home was started by a group of benevolently minded women in ift and was incorporated the following year. The first officers were: Mrs. George G. Roney, president; Mrs. David Clark, vice-president; Mrs. Henry B. James, secretary; and Mrs. John R. Dill, treasurer. With the officers were associated fourteen other women, who composed the board of managers. There was also a board of counsellors composed of the following: Stacy G. Potts, John R. Dill, James T. Sherman, John A. Roebling, Daniel P. Forst and Isaac Stevens.

The general object of the institution as stated in the constitution is "to provide and sustain a home for destitute children and to afford them the advantages of moral, religious and useful training." It was also provided that "each evangelical denomination shall be represented as nearly equally in the board as is practical and consistent with the interests of the institution." The home was opened on February 10, 1860, in a small house on Perry Street. Within one year fifty-nine children had been received and the home was moved to a more commodious house on Warren Street, which had formerly been occupied by Andrew Crozier. In the autumn of 1885 Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. Stokes purchased at a cost of $7,800 a lot on Chestnut Avenue, which they presented to the association. Ground for the erection of a building was broken in August 1887 and on September 24 of that year the cornerstone was laid by the Rev. Daniel R. Foster, pastor of Bethany Presbyterian Church. The completed building was dedicated on November 15,  1888.

The association still occupies this building, which has been considerably enlarged to meet the increasing needs. The institution is supported by the subscriptions of its friends and has also a small income from invested funds. It has been the custom to hold an annual supper and fair. The association has cared for and educated hundreds of orphan or half-orphan boys and girls and sent them into the world fully equipped to earn their living. Where it is possible parents and guardians are expected to aid in the cost of the children's keep. The children in the home are constituted a part of the Public School System of the city and have regular teachers assigned to them. The home has today an enrolment of thirty-six boys and thirty-three girls.

The officers for the year 1928 were: Mrs. Paul L. Cort, president; Mrs. Edward L. Katzenbach, vice-president; Mrs. A. Crozer Reeves, treasurer; and Mrs. Kenneth W. Moore, secretary.

The board of counsellors are: Justice Frank S. Katzenbach, Jr., Senator A. Crozer Reeves, Ferdinand W. Roebling, Jr., James J. Wilson and Archibald W. Browm

The association is contemplating the erection of an additional building on the present site.


This institution, supported and managed by the State of New Jersey, is located off Stuyvesant Avenue near the line of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. Previous to occupying its present site the school was at "Pine Grove," in the sixth ward of the city.

The estate comprises one hundred and eighty acres of land, the greater part of which is under cultivation. There are accommodations for about three hundred girls, who are housed in a series of modern buildings. The administration building is a counterpart of Washington's Headquarters in Morristown, N.J., and was formally opened in 1910 and named the "Fort Cottage." This building served as New Jersey headquarters at the Jamestown Virginia Exposition before it was removed to its present site. It is furnished in the Colonial style.

The State Home for Girls is correctional in type, and is designed for girls between the ages of eight and seventeen who may be committed to it by the courts. The ideal of its training is to fit the girls to return to society, sound in health and able to earn their living on a practical basis.

The institution is, at present, completing a ten-year building program which will make its physical plant one of the best in the country.


The Odd Fellows' Home was organized November 18, 1885, by a few of the members of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, among whom was George W. Hamell of Trenton, then grand master of the Grand Lodge. It continued as a voluntary association until 1906, when the Grand Lodge of the Order in New Jersey bought the property and took over the management.

The home is located on the outskirts of the city, at the intersection of Pennington and Parkway Avenues. The nine acres of land which, with the buildings and furnishings of the home and farm, constitute the plant, could not be replaced today for $150,000. It is entirely free of debt and has an endowment of over $200,000.

It is free to aged and indigent members of the order, their wives and widows, and is now caring for about seventy-five such residents at an average maintenance cost of $7.60 per week.

The home is maintained by a per capita tax levied on all members of the order in this State, while every person admitted to the order contributes $3 toward the permanent building fund.

The Odd Fellows were the first fraternal organization in this country to establish homes for the aged and indigent members and the home in New Jersey was the third one to be opened.

This home is only for the aged, the order in this State maintaining an orphanage in Newark for the children of their deceased members.


This society was incorporated in New Jersey in October 1894. It is governed by a board of managers, thirty-six members, who serve without compensation. Twelve are elected each year to serve for a period of three years.

For seventeen years, prior to 1922, the property of the society consisted of the McKinley Receiving Home, located on Brunswick Avenue, Slackwood, in Lawrence Township. In February 1922 the society took possession of its new Receiving Home at Parkway and Parkside Avenues, Trenton. This property is valued at $150,000, is modern in construction and appointments, and has normal accommodations for sixty-four children.

The object of the society is to provide suitable family homes in the State of New Jersey for homeless and dependent children that may be committed to its care, and to do the work of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

The society does not provide permanently for any of its wards at the Receiving Home. There are usually, at any time, about sixty children in the Receiving Home awaiting placement in family homes.

The society also maintains an Aid Department. Through this department it aids and protects neglected and abused children in their own homes.

It helps mothers to find employment where they may take their children with them. It also provides temporary care for children in distress.

The society has had three presidents: W. W. Knox, D.D., of New Brunswick, Dr. Daniel R. Foster, deceased, of Trenton, and Edward S. Wood, of Trenton, the present incumbent. Mr. Wood has served continuously since December 1909. It has also had three superintendents: the Rev. M. T. Lamb, the founder, who died in 1912, C. V. Williams, now of Chicago, and the present superintendent, the Rev. J. C. Stock, who has served since 1914.

The society is supported entirely by voluntary contributions.


The Florence Crittenton Christian Refuge Association was organized February 15, 1895, for the care of wayward and homeless white women.

A rented house on Livingston Street was occupied as the first home, until 1897, when the association moved into the present home, situated at 1212 Edgewood Avenue, an old Colonial farm-house owned by the Cooks.

The first officers were: Miss Anna T. Bailey, president; Mrs. T. H. Welling, first vice-president; Mrs. James B. Oliphant, corresponding secretary; Mrs. J. L. Manning, treasurer; Mrs. M. B. Eyler, matron. The first advisory board consisted of: the Hon. William M. Lanning, James Buchanan, the Hon. Robert S. Woodruff, David Willetts and the Rev. C. A. Eyler. The mission was affiliated with the national Florence Crittenton Mission in 1901. The following have served as presidents: Miss Bailey, Miss Heller, Mrs. T. H. Welling and (since 1915) Mrs. Samuel D. Oliphant.

Aside from the hospital aid from the County, the work of the mission is supported entirely by voluntary contributions, there being no endowment fund. During the thirty-three years of its existence the mission has provided a home for more than a thousand girls and about eight hundred babies.

A salaried superintendent and resident nurse have charge of the home under the direction of a board of managers. A competent physician is in attendance upon call, his services being largely gratuitous.

Members of the present board are: Mrs. S. D. Oliphant, president; Mrs. A. C. Oliphant, first vice-president; Mrs. Howard Heath, second vice-president; Mrs. Josiah Hollies, third vice-president; Mrs. William Turner, recording and corresponding secretary; Mrs. John Pope, treasurer.


The Friends' Boarding Home of Burlington Quarterly Meeting was established at Trenton, March 24, 1898.

Anna T. Jeans, a wealthy member of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting and a woman who did a great amount of good during her lifetime, left at her death among many bequests a certain amount to be distributed among the different quarterly meetings comprising the Yearly Meeting, to assist in establishing Friends' boarding homes. The object of the donor was to provide a boarding place with a homelike atmosphere for all Friends, but especially to make comfortable and happy members who did not have the means to care for themselves. With this help dependent members of the Society are cared for with but little expense to their respective Meetings, as it is the duty of each Meeting to care for all lacking the means to care for themselves. At the same time it provides a boarding place for all members well fixed financially but not having homes of their own. At any time when there are unoccupied rooms, others of any denomination are welcome on the same terms as at other places with corresponding conveniences.

The home was originally located on North Stockton Street, but is at present on Greenwood Avenue. The present board of managers consist of: Arthur E. Moon, president; Laura H. Satterthwaitc, vice-president; Elsie Prey, secretary; Franklin S. Zelly, treasurer; Sara C. Atkinson, assistant treasurer ; and Rebecca S. DeCou, chairman of executive committee.


This institution was established eight years ago in honor of Mrs. Mary Brokaw, who gave the first contribution of one dollar towards a home for girls. At this time Mrs. Ona Anderson was a city missionary and came in contact with many worthy cases. After starting with three rooms it was found that more space was needed, and a house on Broad Street was taken ; the institution remained there only a short time and then moved to Princeton Avenue. With the demands made every day for caring for mothers and their children, it was felt that a place in the country was advisable and an old farm was procured and the house remodelled to suit the needs of the institution.

This home was started entirely on faith, and is supported by voluntary contributions from interested individuals, organizations and churches. It is a missionary work, and religious services are held every day in the Home by the matron, Mrs. Nettie Watson, who has been in charge for seven years. The nature of the work is to shelter those in need of a home, to secure friends, and to encourage the weak, to help the wayward and erring girl, and to assist widows and their children, sometimes taking them for an indefinite period. Among those who appreciate these services are girls and women who have been found upon the streets, stranded and penniless, without shelter and employment.

In October 1922 the institution was incorporated, and is now governed by a board of directors. The home is situated near the Lanning School, Pennington Road.

III. Philanthropic and Educational Institutions


The Trenton Y.M.C.A. was organized in 1856. According to the authentic records of the local association the first president was David Cole who was principal of the old Trenton Academy. The city directory of 1857 in its enumeration of leading citizens gives the name of Mr. Cole as president. The association in those days met the first Tuesday evening of every month in a room located at 21 East State Street.

The records reveal that in 1870 the Trenton Y.M.C.A. embraced a membership of about three hundred, and rooms were then taken across the street from the first headquarters, at 20-22 East State Street. Joseph P. Welling was the president in that period and much tangible progress was made in the development of a comprehensive program. During 1871 Dr. William Elmer, a prominent physician of those days, was made president, and under his regime the activities of the association were further expanded. Public meetings were held on the second Tuesday of every month and during the winter season lectures, essays, debates and kindred other educational functions were extensively promoted. During the summer seasons in those years open-air meetings were prominently featured at different localities throughout the city every Sunday afternoon. Some other early presidents whose administrations showed marked progress were the Rev. John C. Brown, Lewis Parker, Jr., and John C. Titus.

A lull in the onward march of the association seems to have occurred about 1878 and for some years thereafter only meagre accounts are given in the historical records of the Trenton Y.M.C.A.

A healthy reorganization of the association is chronicled as happening in the year when the late judge William M. Lanning, as president, R. M. Anderson, as recording secretary, and Samuel L. Baily, as treasurer, guided the destinies of the institution. At that time quarters were leased at 33 West State Street, known as Concordia Hall, until the Sunday Advertiser purchased and took over the building. The first general secretary was E. M. Thompson and he was succeeded in 1887 by R. Howard Taylor.

After serving about a year Judge Lanning resigned and was succeeded by the late Sering P. Dunham, who held the office for nearly four years. The next presiding officer was John A. Campbell, who is now president of the Trenton Potteries Company and still actively identified with the work of the association.

The old rooms at 33 West State soon proved too small for the manifold endeavors of the institution and during the season of 1889 and 1890 the churches of the city were utilized for the religious services and various halls for entertainments and other social features of the organization's work. Soon this arrangement became inexpedient and a suite of rooms was occupied in the Baker Building, the gymnasium being located in the Masonic Hall Building. Library Hall was engaged twice a week for entertainments and the religious services conducted by the association were usually held in Taylor Opera House or in different churches throughout the city.

In March 1892 a new building for the exclusive use of the association was erected on East State Street at a cost of about $120,000. The East State Street structure at the time of its erection and for a long while subsequent was considered one of the best-equipped Y.M.C.A. homes in the country. It was 228 feet deep with a 56-foot frontage, four stories high, and contained a commodious auditorium seating about one thousand people. Additional facilities included a very fine gymnasium, swimming pool, bathrooms, shower baths, locker rooms, dormitories and bowling alleys, parlors, reading rooms, recreational and educational classrooms.

Dedicatory exercises for the East State Street building were held in November 1892. The building was later furnished by the ladies of the Women's Auxiliary at a cost of about $6,000.

With the opening of the building the work of the Y.WC.A. of Trenton began to leap forward with great alacrity. The membership of the organization soon reached the one thousand mark and as the years went on branch buildings were established in other sections of the city.

Under the direction of men instilled with the spirit of real sportsmanship the Trenton Y.M.C.A. did more, perhaps, than any other local institution for advancing the interests of clean sports. For many years the association conducted a high-class baseball team that was recognized throughout the country as one of the best diamond aggregrations outside of the big leagues. Its splendid supervision over the calendar of sports was also largely instrumental in bringing Trenton to the front as the basketball center of the country. Tennis and other pastimes - both of an outdoor and indoor nature  - were promoted under the most wholesome influences as the result of the organization's efforts in this respect. The sports-loving proclivities of the youth of the city were thus given an opportunity to be developed under Christian auspices and in an environment free from all semblance of moral corruption.

In 1909 Harry G. Stoddard succeeded Mr. Campbell as president and he continued to serve in that capacity until February 1911, when Edward L. Katzenbach was elected to the chief executive office. The administrations of both Mr. Stoddard and Mr. Katzenbach were marked by innumerable triumphs in the expansion of local work and the association continued to prosper under their able management.

Since 1915 H. Arthur Smith has been president of the organization and it has been during his regime that recognition was given to the fact that conditions demanded a new and larger building. With this knowledge in mind a committee from the board of directors was appointed during the summer of 1918 to negotiate the sale of the old building to Nevius Brothers and on August 8 of that year the transaction was consummated.

At about the same time Mr. Charles A. Green, the present general secretary, was called to take charge of the local field. Mr. Green had had extensive experience in other cities and his acquisition by the local organization was prompted largely with the thought in mind of promoting a new building campaign at the most expedient time.

December 5, 1918, a committee composed of Messrs. H. Arthur Smith, H. M. Voorhees and James J. Wilson was appointed to consider the selection of a site for the new building. At a meeting of the directors, April 28, 1919, this committee reported that it had purchased the property at the corner of East State Street and South Clinton Avenue, familiarly known as the Dolton estate, and, a few days later, the Farley and Bugbee properties, adjoining the original purchase, were secured. This gave the association for its new project a site of 150 feet on East State Street and 195 feet on South Clinton Avenue.

In July 1919, a special meeting of the board of directors was held for the purpose of authorizing and formulating a campaign for the new building fund. General C. Edward Murray was made general chairman of the new building committee and an aggressive campaign was conducted during the week of January 20-28, 1920.

Prior to the formal opening of the city-wide canvass eight business men voluntarily made donations of $25,000 each to start the campaign. The donors of these handsome contributions were General C. Edward Murray, O. O. Bowman, George R. Cook, Frederic A. Duggan, Colonel Washington A. Roebling, W. J. B. Stokes, J. Oliver Stokes and a joint contribution of $30,000 by Karl G. Roebling and F. W. Roebling, Jr. The campaign won a hearty response from the people of Trenton and the quota of $500,000 was over-subscribed to the amount of $53,000. The success of the movement has made possible the erection of the magnificent monument of which the association may justly be proud, for the building at East State State and South Clinton Avenue undoubtedly represents the last word in Y.M.C.A. edifices. 2

2 See Y.M.C.A. booklet, printed by Hibbert Printing Co., 1922.

The total cost of the land, building and equipment was $757,500. The approximate membership is two thousand eight hundred, of whom eight hundred are boys. There are one hundred sixty members resident in the dormitories.


The Pennsylvania Railroad Y.M.C.A. was organized November 13, 1892, and its first home was on Perry Street near the coalport yards. The first secretary was Mr. Busey. The City Y.M.C.A. secretary, W. A. Venter, with the following railroad men, were at the organization meeting: Messrs. Hatfield, Rathbun, Shepherd, Bailey, Joslin and Archibald Green, secretary of the religious work committee.

The following named men composed the early committee of management: Messrs. H. Johnson (Chairman), A. F. Spicer, Jas. Broughton, Frank Kitchen, Bailey, A. Green, Joslin and Howell.

The second building was at 43 Chestnut Avenue, near the Barracks yards.

J. R. Campbell in the year 1903 was appointed secretary to succeed William Charles and served the association until he retired on January 1, 1927, at which time D. J. Kennedy from New York City was appointed secretary. The third location for the railroad work was established at 508 East State Street, and remained there until April 1923, when it was united with the Central Y.M.C.A. in the present building located at 2 South Clinton Avenue. The following-named railroad men compose the present Pennsylvania Railroad Department committee of management: C. H. Miller, chairman, E. P. Bruere, treasurer, H. S. Fry, recording secretary, W. L. Anderson, Dr. R. H. Moore, C. O. Long, D. R. Worthington, M. B. Slack, Geo. L. Ziessel, G. A. Pitman, P. P. Anderson, Z. C. Johnston and E. E. Pyle.


Hampton W. Cook, desiring to perpetuate the name of his father, William G. Cook, in the Wilbur community and city of Trenton, sought the advice of the Y.M.C.A. board of directors and decided to erect a building to be named the William G. Cook Memorial Y.M.C.A. On October 18, 1909, the deed for the ground was turned over to the board of directors and accepted by President Harry Stoddard. The ground was broken for the building at the corner of Greenwood and South Olden Avenues in the fall of 1910, and finished in November 1911. The board of directors of the Y.M.C.A. appointed a committee of management which under its supervision was authorized to direct the affairs of the branch. This committee of management was composed of Messrs. C. B. Case, chairman, W. J. J. Bowman, J. Clarence Richardson, Robert V. Whitehead, Frank Thropp and J. Edward Myers. The committee installed Frank Condon, as secretary, and Albert E. Bratton, as physical director, in charge of the building and to organize and plan for the activities. The first meeting of the organization was held on November 18 at the home of Harry Baxter on Olden Avenue where a number of young men of the community, together with the secretary and physical director, organized and formed a nucleus of the first men's group. On Thursday, January 4, 1912, the dedicatory services were held.

The association has grown from this small beginning to a membership of 709. The building consists of fifteen dormitory rooms on the third floor that are filled to capacity; a men's room, two boys' club rooms, dining-room and kitchen on the second floor; lobby and gymnasium on the first floor; swimming pool, locker room, bowling alleys, filtration and heating plant in the basement. This has given the community of Wilbur an institution that is being used by people of all creeds.


The Trenton Y.W.C.A. was organized in the autumn of 1903 at the home of Mrs. Henry W. Green, and the following spring Mrs. Austin C. Cooley was elected as the first president of the organization which started with a larger membership than any similar association up to that time. Quarters for the new organization were secured in the W.C.T.U. Building and later in the Wilkinson Building. When a call for gymnasium work came the association rented the old Armory room on Hanover Street in the rear of the First Presbyterian Church. The next growth took the association to Hanover Street, opposite the present quarters, where rooms were rented to transients. The fact that more than one thousand members were enjoying the varied activities of the association by the close of the third year proved the need of a more adequate building, and in the summer of 1908 the association established itself at 138 and 140 East Hanover Street. There regular gymnasium work and a cafeteria, now grown to large proportions, had their beginnings, as well as did extension work in factories. Classes in domestic science were offered before this branch of knowledge was taught in the public schools, and were well attended. Outdoor life was supplied for the girls by a summer cottage at Somerset and by a camp at Point Pleasant on the Delaware. An outstanding piece of work rendered by the Y.W.C.A. along civic lines was the aid given city officials by organized bands of volunteers in the fight against the influenza epidemic in 1918.

By 1923 the association had outgrown its quarters, and after a successful building campaign work was begun on the present well-equipped administration building on East Hanover Street, with a residence building facing on Academy Street. These buildings were dedicated January 25, 1925.

In 1927 work for colored people was begun at the branch on Montgomery Street.

The following have served as presidents: Mrs. Austin C. Cooley, Mrs. Charles Howell Cook, Miss Edith C. Moon, Mrs. William N. Mumper, Mrs. Howell C. Stull and Mrs. Edward W. Dunham.


In 1911 was organized the second International Institute in America, - the first being in New York, It was first known as the Branch Y.W.C.A. A room was rented at 400 Genesee Street and put in charge of Miss Aimie Sears.

The activities consisted of dressmaking, cooking and English classes. A library of books in Polish, German, English and Hungarian was at the disposal of the people on stated evenings.

The use of several schools was secured and English classes were taught by volunteers. In one building folk-dancing and gymnastics were added to the general program. There was a club for boys and on Sundays the branch room was open and young people encouraged to use it at stated hours.

The names of new arrivals were sent from New York and such were met at the station by a worker who took them to their new homes. Subsequently work was begun in East Trenton and classes in English were conducted not only in school buildings but also in public halls, kitchens and one in the laundry of Mercer Hospital.

In October 1914 the Cavour Lyceum was opened for young Italians, who studied and debated on many questions of current interest, Many well-known Trentonians; assisted in inspiring these young men to qualify for business and professional careers.

In 1914 the Sharp property at 942 South Clinton Avenue was purchased, and continues as headquarters for the institute.

Miss Emma Linburg, now Mrs. Horace B. Tobin, was the first chairman, later succeeded by Mrs. Thomas Trenchard, Mrs. C. Edward Murray and, at thepresent time, Miss Mary L. Johnston.

The program includes in its scope the welcoming of new arrivals, teaching them whatsoever they need in the new environment, providing necessary recreation, securing work, assisting in family problems and so far as possible thus bridging the chasm between the old and new life. No distinction is made between races, classes or creeds. The work is carried on by a staff of five and reaches between one and two thousand people each month.


The Women's Christian Temperance Union was the outgrowth of a visit made to Trenton by Miss Frances E. Willard and Mrs. Mary R. Denman, the union being organized on February 29, 1876, with thirty-two members. Through the courtesy of the Board of Trade business and prayer meetings were held in its rooms for nearly two years. Subsequently, a room was rented over Washington Market, and occupied until October 1878, when quarters were taken in the Y.M.C.A. building. In February 1879, the Y.M.C.A. surrendered the custody of its library into the hands of the W.C.T.U., and the rooms formerly occupied by the Y.M.C.A. were leased until February 1885 when the Union Library, 214 East State Street, was formally opened and dedicated. The cost of the building was $33,000, and when it was dedicated there was no debt upon it.

In 1880 the union organized a night school for boys who were at work through the day, teaching them some of the rudimentary studies, promoting habits of thrift and in many ways befriending them. This was kept up for several years until the school authorities, recognizing the need of this work, established the Public Night School thus relieving the union of further responsibility. For two years a similar work was done among the working girls.

For eighteen years Sunday Public Temperance Meetings were held, conducted by noted speakers on the temperance platform, as well as a large number of Trenton ministers.

In May 1883 a separate organization was f ormed called the Bible Readers' Aid. In 1884 the Fruit and Flower Mission was started, and ever since visits have been paid weekly to the hospitals, almshouse, prison, county jail and homes of the sick, for the distribution of flowers, fruit, papers, tracts and also for the holding of Gospel services wherever the way was opened. When the Y.M.C.A. was reorganized and the Ladies' Auxiliary was formed, members of the union became active in that organization.

In 1891 a work was begun for business girls which gradually broadened its sphere of usefulness, and weekly singing, gymnasium and cooking classes were held with a monthly social where the girls listened to earnest addresses on topics of vital interest to young women. The interest in this increased so that four hundred young women signed the pledge "Total Abstinence or No Husbands." The Y.W.C.A., desiring to organize a branch in Trenton, in 1904 the union agreed to lend its aid and to turn over its work among girls to that society, with the result that one thousand members were enrolled of which the Amethyst Club of the union formed the nucleus.

In 1895, the work for erring girls was brought to the attention of the union and as the result of its cooperation the Florence Crittenton Mission was started. When the Free Public library was organized, the Union Library sold the majority of its books to that institution.

At the present time the work is divided into nineteen departments. There is also work among the colored people, which is under the charge of the president, Mrs. Howard Heath.

In addition to the mother organization (Trenton No. 1), there are four branch societies, viz.: Willard, Emma Bourne, Hillcrest and Whildy Union. Each of these has from one to nine departments.

At the present time Mrs. Howard Heath is president, Mrs. M. E. Thompson, secretary, and Mrs. Margaret H. Hunt, treasurer.


The Mount Carmel Guild is a charitable and social welfare organization of the Catholic women of the City of Trenton. In January, 1920, the Right Rev. Thomas Joseph Walsh, Bishop of Trenton, established this guild for the purpose of banding together those interested in being of practical aid to the poor and needy of the community. All the workers are volunteers and the organization is supported by the dues of the members.

The annual dues of the active members are $i1; of the associate members, $5; of the supporting members, $10; and of the special benefactors, $25. Those desiring to contribute larger sums are designated as special annual contributors, and this class of membership includes the $100 contributions.

The work of the guild is divided into twenty-four departments, each under a special chairman. The guild has a membership of upwards of three thousand. The first president of the guild was Mrs. John L. Kuser, now deceased. Her successors were Miss Mary L. Convery, Miss Mary T. McCue, Mrs. F. V. Cartwell and Miss Winifred B. Gilmore, the present incumbent.

The character of the work carried on by the guild is as wide as the needs of humanity and embraces departments for “Adult Reform,” “Americanization,” a “Girl's Club,” “Colored Missions,” “Day Nurseries,” “Employment,” “Institutional Visiting,” “Legal Aid,” “Distribution of Literature,” “Medical Aid,” “Mother's Clubs,” “Physical Relief,” “Physical Training,” “Vacation Schools,” “Outfitting,” “Social Inquiry,” and “Publicity.”

The guild publishes a year-book Review, giving full details as to its work and methods. A membership campaign is conducted annually. The Right Rev. Monsignor John H. Fox, V.G., has been moderator of the guild since its inception, and the present membership is about three thousand two hundred.


The first troop of Boy Scouts was organized at the Y.M.C.A. in 1912 with Gilbert H. Roehrig as scoutmaster. The oldest official record is dated January 16, 1914, when a meeting was called to organize a second class council. The first officers were Dr. W. A. Wetzel, president, William E. Green, vice-president, Owen Moon, Jr., treasurer, Gilbert H. Roehrig, secretary, and William Burgess, Jr., commissioner. The first camp was held on Marshall's Island, August 1 to 9, with Walter L. Hughes as director. Seventy-four boys attended.

There were then twelve troops and two hundred boys in the organization. The first council was organized in November 1916, with Samuel Haverstick, president, Dr. Wetzel, James Kerney, General Murray and Samuel Levy, vice-presidents, Howard L. Hughes, secretary, William E. Green, treasurer, J. Connor French, S. E. Kaufman, M. G. Rockhill, D. W. Scammell and J. H. Sines, additional members, D. William Scammell, commissioner, and William Burgess, Jr., scout executive. William D. Durling was elected scout executive on December 28, 1917, and served until his resignation, January 1, 1921. Scouting rose to a high state of efficiency under his leadership. In 1921 W. F. Abriel was elected executive and served until February 1923. In May 1923 E. R. Carrick was elected and is serving at present. The council owns Camp Pahaquarra on the Delaware in New Jersey, about eight miles above the Delaware Water Gap. It is 1450 acres in area and was once an old copper mine operated in pre-Colonial times by the Dutch (1645-57). It was purchased (1925) by the council for $19,900 and is at present equipped to care for one hundred twenty-five boys per week. The troops are affiliated with the churches, lodges, the American Legion, the Knights of Columbus, the Y.M.H.A., the School for the Deaf, etc., and on January 1, 1928, there were nine hundred Scouts in Trenton (1127 in the County), divided into forty-eight Troops. Boys not old enough to be Scouts may join the Wolf Cubs. In Indian sign‑language the sign for "scout" and "wolf" is the same, and therefore junior Scouts are "Wolf Cubs."


When Trenton Council No. 355, Knights of Columbus, took possession of its spacious new headquarters on East State Street in 1923, welfare work among the boys of the numerous city parishes was entered upon at the request of the Right Rev. Thomas J. Walsh.

Under the present plan the Knights take care of boys from the age of nine until they are old enough to join the order at the age of eighteen. The younger lads are members of the Cubs, associated with the Trenton and Mercer County Area of Boy Scouts, while those up to fifteen are active in three troops of Boy Scouts. The Knights have the only Scout band in the city, whose appearance in various civic parades has always aroused a great deal of interest.

For the boy between fifteen and eighteen there has been formed a unit of Columbian Squires. The boys in this organization have a three-year program, which fits them to become useful citizens of the city and good students. Incidentally, they are taught to become leaders of other younger lads.

In addition the Knights of Columbus have an orchestra of sixty pieces with lads ranging from ten to sixteen or seventeen years of age. This is directed by Joseph F. Mayer, who also looks after the band. The boys have appeared on the stage a number of times and have won a reputation as a musical organization.

For the benefit of the parochial schools the Knights annually conduct basketball and baseball leagues and for the high school lads an elocution contest. The entire program is directed by a boys' committee of which judge J. Connor French is chairman. The activities are carried on through the assistance of volunteer workers from the membership.

The Knights also play a part in the civic life of the city by extending the use of its auditorium for meetings of the Boy Scouts and. the American Legion. The organization is represented in the various basketball, handball and baseball leagues and its members play an important part in every movement that has for its purpose the bettering of Trenton.


The present Y.M.H.A.-Y.W.H.A. as a combined organization came into existence by the consolidation in 1916 of the Young Men's Hebrew Association, founded in 1909 and the Young Women's Hebrew Association, founded in 1912, the Andax Club, the Young Judaea Association, the Adelphi Club and the Elysian Club. A campaign was launched for a building fund and in October 1916 the old Interstate Telephone Building on South Stocktou Street was purchased for a community home. The building was dedicated on Sunday evening, December 9, 1917.

The Y.M.H.A.-Y.W.H.A. was the first organization of its kind in New Jersey to establish a home and also the first to have a paid executive secretary.

The first officers were: David Holzner, president; Samuel Levy, first vice-president; Jonas Fuld, second vice-president; Harry Haveson, third vice-president; Isaac Goldberg, secretary; Dr. Harry K. Jacobs, secretary, and Charles Fishberg.

The first secretary was David L. Feldman. He was followed by Sidney Marcus, who was succeeded by Maurice Bisgyer. Dr. M. H. Chaseman followed Mr. Bisgyer and the present executive is Haym Peretz.


The Girls' Friendly Society, an organization of the Anglican Church, was founded in England in 1875 and established in America two years later.

The society extends practically all over the world. In this country alone membership numbers sixty thousand and in the International Society four hundred thousand.

The Trenton branch was established in 1894 by the Rev. E. J. Knight, then rector of Christ Church and later bishop of Western Colorado.

The promoters and first officers were Mrs. R. V. Whitehead, branch president, Mrs. E. J. Knight, Mrs. Chas. E. Gummere and Mrs. Lewis Perrine, associates.

Branches in Trenton at the present time are: Christ Church, formed 1894; Grace Church, formed 1897; Trinity, formed 1920; St. Michael's, formed 1922; All Saints', formed 1923; St. Paul's, formed 1924.

Membership is extended to all girls and young worren of good character, irrespective of creed, race, or color; and every phase of adolescent life is reached through its various departments. It brings the individual girl as early as the age of five years into a society where the forces of religion, friendliness and sympathy are employed in her behalf, and where she is given the opportunity of extending them to others. It not only endeavors to fit the girl for society, but remembers its duty to make the world a fit place for her to live in, and is therefore concerned with social, industrial and vocational problems.


This is a national organization under the auspices of the Episcopal Church, though membership in the guild is not limited to those belonging to the Church hut is open to all nurses who have been graduated from a recognized school of nurses as well as to student nurses in course of training in such a school. There are branches in over fifty centers in the United States with a total membership of about five thousand. In this diocese there are branches in Trenton, Elizabeth, Camden, and Plainfield. The Trenton branch has a membership of about one hundred and includes some twelve associates, comprising clergymen, doctors and women interested in the nursing profession. The chaplain is the Rev. Samuel G. Welles and priest-associates are the Rev. Hamilton Schuyler and the Rev. Samuel Steinmetz. The object of the guild is to minister to the religious and social needs of nurses. It assists nurses in realizing the dignity of their calling and in maintaining a high standard of Christian life and work. Meetings with a short religious service and recreational features are held monthly, and an annual church service for all nurses with a sermon or address upon the Sunday nearest to the birthday of Florence Nightingale.

IV. Health and Relief Organizations


The earliest record of any official provisions relating to the public health is found in an ordinance passed by Common Council under date July 3, 1832. There were twelve sections to the ordinance, having to do with elementary public sanitation and providing penalties for disobedience to the regulation laid down. A board of health was appointed consisting of the following Dr. James F. Clark, Dr. John McKelway, Dr. Peter Howell, Dr. Joseph C. Welling, Dr. Francis A. Ewing, Daniel Baker, Thomas C. Sterling, John Wilson, Benjamin Hayden, Elisha Gordon, James D. Westcott. (From "Ordinances, City of Trenton, December 21, 1792, to April 14, 1836.") Presumably this body or its successors continued to function with more or less efficiency, though there is no record of any proceedings until the lapse of many years. The first minutes of the board of health go back only to 1866. The board as constituted in 1867 included two representatives from each of the then six wards. Of the twelve members, six were physicians. The president of the board was Dr. John L. Taylor, and the secretary was Franklin S. Mills, who continued in that office until 1882. There were no inspectors. Members filed oomplaints, which were referred to the street commissioner with orders to have them abated. This was the main function of the board during these years. The first regular health inspector was James H. McGuire who was appointed in 1882 under an ordinance passed in 1881. He served for several years and was succeeded by William H. Mickel, a druggist, who remained until 1986, when the first medical officer, Dr. W. B. McGailliard, was appointed and served three years. He was succeeded by Dr. A. S. Fell, who still holds a corresponding office under the commission government.

In the twelve-year period from 1899 to 1911, only two additional employees were added, - one clerk in 1904 and a meat inspector, Dr. G. F. Harker, in 1906.

In 1904 the city offered for the first time to furnish free antitoxin for the treatment of diphtheria to all who could not afford to pay for it. In that year also the medical inspection of all school children was first advocated.

In 1907, the bureau of vital statistics was transferred from the office of the city clerk to the board of health.

In 1911 commission government succeeded the old councilmanic form and the first milk inspector was appointed. In 1913, the present filtration plant was completed and put in operation. In 1912, the city adopted an ordinance to control the purity of ice sold. In 1913, the name "Board of Health" was changed to "Bureau of Health." In 1914, the first public health nurse was engaged. In 1915, the city established, for the first time, a chemical and bacteriological laboratory. A part-time dental clinic for treating the teeth of children of poor parents was established in 1912, and in 1921 this was made a whole-time proposition.

During 1917, a wartime venereal disease clinic was established. This was enlarged and permanently established in 1919. Also in this same year an ordinance was adopted giving the health department control over all boarding homes for children.

A division of school medical inspection and welfare nursing was established with Dr. Florence C. Child in charge. This began to function in 1920, and the health work of all parochial schools was taken over and clinics established.

The department personnel at present consists of forty-two people.

The first nurse employed by the bureau of health began work in 1914. Her activities covered home visits to the needy poor of the city, securing for them clothing, provisions, employment, etc., visits to the homes of tubercular patients, and supervision of the municipal dispensary where medical, surgical and tubercular patients were treated.

The general plan of handling dispensary work and outdoor visits was adhered to until 1923 when an additional tubercular nurse was added, and a new venereal disease nurse. The chief function of the latter was to locate sources of infection and to persuade these infected persons to apply for treatment, either to a private physician or to the city dispensary.

The division of school medical inspection and welfare nursing was created by city ordinance in 1920, and a supervisory chief was also appointed. At this time school medical inspection work was started in the twelve parochial schools of the city, and infant welfare nursing, which had been conducted in Trenton since July 1, 1919, by the State bureau of child hygiene, was transferred to the city division in charge of welfare nursing.

At the present time there are nine thousand children under inspection attending Catholic schools. The public schools have their own separate organization for this purpose.

The work of the school nurses is chiefly concerned with the detection and correction of physical defects, such as decayed teeth, defective vision, enlarged tonsils, nasal obstructions, anemia, postural defects, malnutrition, etc. Since starting the work in 1921, about one thousand two hundred pupils with poor vision have obtained glasses.

Infant welfare work is also conducted by the city with eight nurses assigned to this department. There are several baby-keep-well stations where infants are weighed and measured weekly and examined by a physician. The city also conducts prenatal clinics for the care and instruction of pregnant mothers who are not under the supervision of private physicians.


The first meeting of the Mercer County Health League was held in October 1902. Dr. William Elmer was the first president and Francis Bazley Lee, secretary. Charter members included Dr, Elmer Barwis, Mrs. I. H. Welling, Francis B. Lee, Rabbi Nathan Stern, School Superintendent Ebenezer Mackey, James Kerney, Mrs. M. A. Fry, Dr. Alton S. Fell, Dr. W. L. Wilbur of Hightstown, Dr. T. A. Pierson of Hopewell, Thomas B. Holmes, Miss Grace E. Valentine, Dr. A. W. Gardner and Dr. W. N. Baxter.

Under the name of the "Mercer County Tuberculosis and Sanitation League," Mayor F. W. Donnelly reorganized the association in 1912, with the following officers: Mayor Donnelly, president, Dr. Ebenezer Mackey, Edward Anderson, Mrs. I. H. Welling, vice-presidents, Miss Iva Verne Blanchard, secretary, and Charles Fehrlich, treasurer. Later this position was filled by Frank W. Thompson. Inspired by Mayor Donnelly the league was very active from 1912 to 1914, inaugurating a fine program of health work. During this period the first nursing service for Trenton and the County was conducted by the league, the nursing service being taken over by the city after its value had been proven. The first open-air rooms were built in the Columbus School at the initiative of the league which later equipped the department and also furnished milk for the children. The classes were later turned over to the board of education. More complete registration of tuberculosis cases was secured and better sanitary conditions prevailed in the city and vicinity. The "Kiddies' Kamp" for undernourished children was started by Mayor Donnelly in a tent in front of the old tuberculosis hospital in 1912, with five children. During the next few years school nurses took charge of the "Kamp" which was conducted at the seashore.

In 1918 the Trenton Rotary Club bought Park Island (renamed Rotary Island) for the children of this vicinity and the league moved its "Kamp" there. In 1919 Mayor Donnelly started a drive for a permanent "Kamp," and the first dormitory was built.

Under the name of the Mercer County Tuberculosis League the association was reorganized in May 1919 with Charles H. Cook as president. Other officers were Dr. G. R. Moore, Dr. M. W. Reddan and Mrs. F. V. Cantwell, vice-presidents; David Holzner, treasurer; and Mrs, J. E. Van Home, secretary. During that year about one hundred twenty children were taken to “Kamp” The league was reorganized in 1920 and renamed the Mercer County Health League. F. D. Preston of the national association served as executive secretary from January until July 1920. Miss Margaret L. Johnston became executive secretary in July 1920. In 1921 another dormitory and playhouse were built, contributions by the public and Trenton Chapter of the Red Cross making this addition possible.

The league was further reorganized in 1922 with officers as follows: City Commissioner George B. La Barre, president; Dr. G. R. Moore, Howard C Severs and S. E. Kaufman, vice-presidents; Mayor Donnelly, honorary president; F. T. Bechtel, treasurer; and Miss Margaret L Johnston, executive sccretary. The work has greatly expanded during the past few years. Much welfare work is conducted by the league as a result of its nursing service and "Kiddies' Kamp" follow-up. An effort is made to put families on a self-supporting basis and to adjust social problems.

The "Kamp" has been conducted as a preventorium since 1923, running over a period of sixteen weeks each season with a total of one thousand weak children being greatly strengthened each year, the weakest children staying all season. In addition to the children predisposed to tuberculosis, others are cared for who have heart disease, nervous disorders or crippled limbs, or are convalescent, getting strengthened for operations, undernourished, etc. There is complete medical examination, with proper rest, diet and play. In 1927 another dormitory with bath-houses was contributed by the merchants and the Carpenters' Union.

The local baby clinics and tuberculosis clinics have had a rapid growth in the past five years. It is impossible to exaggerate the importance of the baby contests. Health is demonstrated from one hundred thirty booths at the show during the entire week, and in other ways. Commissioner La Barre is chairman and Miss Johnston director of the exposition and baby contest.

Members of the executive board of the league for the past five years include Senator A. C. Reeves, S. E, Kaufman, John E. Gill, H. C. Severs, John A. Lambert, Dr. Alton S. Fell, John L. Brock, John W. Manning, Mrs. Joseph M. Middleton, Mrs. Esther Moohan, Miss Sara T. Pollock, Frank Kohn, Joseph G. Buch, Mayor William H. Thompson of Hightstown and Mrs. Charles E. Rue of Windsor.


The Trenton Chapter of the Red Cross was organized during the war period when the people of this community saw the necessity of such service and in a short time was recruited up to a strength of about twenty thousand members. The official headquarters were in the Old Barracks. The chapter is justly proud of its record, for there has been no call from Washington which was not promptly answered. The present post-war membership is about nine thousand.

During 1927 the chapter rendered assistance to about six hundred war veterans; it has settled over $80,000 in government claims for war veterans and written about $1,000,000 in government insurance. It instructs women and girls in courses in home hygiene and the care of the sick; it has taught some two hundred girls, boys and adults effective methods of rescuing and reviving drowning persons. For blind people, nearly two thousand pages of Braille transcribing by hand were completed. Through its efforts this city and vicinity raised $25,000 for sufferers in the Mississippi flood zone.

There is a board of thirty-nine members and the officers and executives for the present year are: Kenneth W. Moore, president; Virginia E. Turford, vice-chairman; R. C. Maxwell, honorary chairman; Robert W Howell, treasurer; Mrs. John R. Summerfeldt, secretary; and Bertha Bray, executive secretary, assisted by Stella M. Scott and Alba Formidoni.


The city has always undertaken a measure of relief for its needy and indigent citizens, but this department was reorganized and made more efficient after the establishment of commission government in 1911. Since that time the personnel of the department has been increased by the employment of a professional welfare worker with assistant, and the establishment of a confidential exchange, so that all agencies interested in this form of charitable service might use the same as a clearing house. The present head of the department is George H. Dapper, Jr., who succeeded the late William H. Nutt in September 1927. Until Mayor Donnelly took over the department little welfare work was done. Realizing the necessity of follow-up work, coupled with relief that was required to rehabilitate and make families self-supporting, there has been built up a welfare department that ranks among the highest in outside relief throughout the State. When application is received for relief, a thorough investigation is first made. After this investigation is completed, if the case is worthy, relief is provided. The city contributes a portion and then seeks the cooperation of other social agencies to make up what is lacking. Relief is continued only until the applicants' problems can he readjusted, and they are placed in a position where they can care for themselves.


A local Society of St. Vincent de Paul, an offshoot of the parent charity organization of France, was formed in Trenton February 27, 1859, and took the name of St. John's Conference. The late Rev. John P. Mackin, then pastor of St. John's Roman Catholic Church, was its first spiritual director, and the following other officers were selected: Thomas Crawford, president; Matthew Curran, vice-president; Michael Cleary, secretary; and Robert Wilson, treasurer. Mr. Crawford had the remarkable record of serving as president for over forty-five years. The society met weekly, and dispensed charity to the needy applicants in the various sections of the city. Besides the small contributions of the members, lectures, picnics and other "benefits" have helped to maintain the funds. The society has always made a feature of keeping in close contact with persons in distress, and there has been maintained a system of home visitations which carry spiritual as well as corporeal comfort to the beneficiaries. The organization is purely voluntary and there are no bills for maintenance of the work.

St. John's Conference covered the entire social field up to March 30, 1879, when St. Mary's Conference of St. Vincent de Paul was established by the late Very Rev. Anthony Smith in St, Mary's parish, with William Kelly as president; Andrew Cahill, vice-president; John Farrell, secretary; and Lawrence Farrell, treasurer. Since that date conferences have been organized in a number of other parishes, of which there are ten in all. There is a central supervisory body which is known as "The Particular Council of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, Trenton, NJ.," of which the following are the officers: The Right Rev. John H. Fox, spiritual director; John M. Rogers, president; Nicholas F. Farley, vice-president; William A. Burns, secretary; Robert F. McGrory, treasurer.

In dollars and cents a recent annuad report shows a distribution of $8,473.28, of which the largest items were: groceries and other goods, $2,152.06; cash grants, $3,297.14. The amount varies from year to year, according to the extent of the distress. There are in all ninety-three active members in the city, with nineteen honorary members and sixty-three subscribing members.

V. Rescue Missions


The Salvation Army commenced what is known as field or spiritual work in Trenton February 1889, with two young women - Captain Winters and Lieutenant Graham. The first hall or meeting place was located on Factory Street, from which they moved in 1890, renting the old Arcade Building on Hanover Street.

There followed a number of changes, both of officers and locations, until 1920, when the building occupied by the Mercer Trust Company at 201 - 203 South Broad Street was bought by the Army and remodelled to meet the local need. The property consists of a splendid auditorium and office on the ground floor, the officers' home or "quarters" on the second floor, and a gymnasium for the young people in the basement.

Religious services are conducted nightly by Ensign and Mrs. Louis Chase, the officers in charge.

A local advisory board is composed of a number of Trenton's leading men, who are giving personal attention and valuable service to this Department of the Army.

The social service department was opened by Captain Thomas Joplin in 1900, the first home for homeless men being located in a rented building on Perry Street, west of Broad Street.

This branch of the Army work consists of employing jobless men in collecting waste or cast-off materials, restoring broken furniture and worn clothing, and disposing of the same to the working classes of Trenton at small cost; and collecting, baling and shipping to the paper mills old newspapers, magazines and rags.

In 1909 these activities were transferred to the Terradelphia Building on Carroll Street. In 1925 the property at 512‑518 Perry Street was bought and remodelled into a well-equippcd, three-story building, housing and feeding some twenty-eight male employees and the same number of transients in sections set apart for that purpose.

Sunday morning religious service and Wednesday evening Bible class are conducted weekly by Major and Mrs. Oscar R. Hagg, the officers in charge.


The work of the Volunteers of America in Trenton was reestablished in the fall of 1908 by Adjutant and Mrs. Butler. The officers who followed were Acting-Captain and Mrs. Prescott. They had charge of the work for a year and were very active during the Billy Sunday campaign in Trenton. These officers were succeeded by Staff-Captain and Mrs. R. E. Burnham, who labored in Trenton for over nine years. Through their efforts the property at 614 Perry Street, now occupied by the Volunteers of America, was purchased. The present officers, Staff-Captain and Mrs. Van Barriger, have been for two years in charge of the work. The work in Trenton includes, besides the holding of religious services on Sundays and weekdays at the Mission Hall, open-air meetings in the summer time, relief work among the poor and the furnishing of meals and lodgings to the unemployed and vagrants. In the women's department mothers and children are cared for and those searching for friends or for work are given shelter and food.

Assistance is also given to Mrs. Maud Ballington Booth's work at the State Prison.


The City Rescue Mission was organized February 22, 1915, with John E. Gill as president and William Anderson, superintendent. John W. Manning succeeded Mr. Gill as president.

From its organization until 1917 the mission was located on North Warren Street, near the Battle Monument. It was then moved to South Broad and Factory Streets, where it remained until September 23, 1924. Since then it has occupied quarters on Perry Street.

Its first board of directors was composed of John E. Gill, B. B. Hutchinson, Frank Dinsmore, Fred T. Bechtel, William Anderson, John Cochrane and Peter G. Arnold.

The purpose of the mission is not only to cater to the spiritual wants of its visitors, but also to the physical, including food, clothing and lodging. During the incumbency of Superintendent Fred Hammond from August 25, 1924, to the present date, receipts for beds amounted to $1,394.20 and for lunches, $196.20; the number of free baths given was 3,373; free lunches, 5,362; lunches paid for, 3,924; beds paid for, 5,577.

There had been a total attendance during that time of 17,460; employment was found for seventy needy cases; and free lodging given to 4,739 men.

The present officers of the mission are: David Crossley, president; Samuel Haverstick, vice-president; Albert N. Kerr, secretary; Fred T. Bechtel, treasurer: Fred Hammond, superintendent.


This organization, with national headquarters in Philadelphia, is the successor to the Salvation Amy of America which separated in the year 1895 from the Salvation Army then under the English management of General William Booth. The American Rescue Workers, as the organization is now called, does work similar to the Salvation Army and established itself in Trenton in 1921 with Captain Joseph Brunch in charge, Major J. W. Gossell has been in charge for the past year. The organization has occupied quarters at 228 Perry Street, where it conducts a dining-room with no provisions for lodgers, but sends applicants to the City Rescue Mission. It conducts religious services in its mission hall and on the streets, mainly in the east end of the town. Agents visit the sick in their homes and in hospitals. Support is derived from voluntary contributions.


VI. Day Nurseries and Baby Shelters


The Mission Helpers of the Sacred Heart, who conduct St. James' Day Nursery, came to Trenton in 1899 at the invitation of the Right Rev. James A. McFaul. The sisters established a day nursery at 136 North Warren Street on August 1, 1900. In this building, the nursery was conducted until September 21, 1923, when it was moved to the present large, modern building, equipped with everything conducive to the good health and happiness of the little ones confided to the care of the sisters. On June 13, 1924, the sisters celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of their coming to Trenton, It was upon this occasion that the late Colonel W. A. Roebling presented the sisters with the means to build a large sun-parlor for the babies.


The Trenton Day Nursery was organized June 15, 1916, by the following committee: James Kerney, Frank Thompson, Mrs. C. F. Adams, Louis de Valliere, Cornelius Turford, Dr. George R. Moore, Mrs. R. C. Maxwell, Arthur E. Moon, Owen Moon, Jr., Arthur E. Crook, John W. Thompson, Miss Sadie Doranz.

The object of the nursery is to receive and care for during the day the young children of poor, industrious working-women whose employment calls them from their homes and who would otherwise be obliged to leave their children entirely without protection and subject to accident.

Two meals a day of good, wholesome food are given; and bathing is strictly attended to.

The officers of the board of managers are as follows: president, Mrs. Daniel J. Bechtel; vice-president, James Kerney; secretary, Frank Thompson; treasurer, Mrs. John W. Thompson.


The Guardian Angel Day Nursery connected with the Immaculate Conception Church of which the Rev. Austin Fox, O.M.C., is pastor, was opened on November 5, 1918, at 591 Chestnut Avenue in the parish sodality house under the management of the Sisters of St. Francis.

Subsequently two rooms on the first floor of the school building, 540 Chestnut Avenue, were set aside for the use of the nursery. This nursery is now self-supporting, although it has its benefactors, who contribute to its support, especially at Christmas time.


The Carolyn Stokes Day Nursery is located at 104 Taylor Street, in the center of East Trenton's industrial section. It was formally opened in 1924, under the supervision of a trained worker. It was built by Mr. and Mrs. W. J. B. Stokes as a memorial to their daughter, Mrs. Carolyn Stokes Blanchard who, with her husband, died duringthe influenza epidemic of 1918. The building is splendidly equipped and has the latest improvements throughout. It cost about $35,000, the plans and supervision of building being the gift of J. Osborne Hunt. The nursery work is the outgrowth of a community work established by the social service department of the Contemporary Club in 1915. The ambition of the department was to later open a nursery. In 1923 the generous donation from Mr. and Mrs. Stokes justified the going ahead with the project. Being unable to find a place suitable for the work, Mr. and Mrs. Stokes decided to build the present nursery. They have appointed a board of trustees so that the permanency of the work shall be assured.

During the year 1926-27 the nursery cared for over five thousand children, in addition to doing real community service in many other ways. One room, built especially for the purpose, is used by the Bureau of Health for a baby clinic every Tuesday and for a prenatal clinic every Thursday. There is also a boys' club of twenty members, meeting every Tuesday evening in the building.

The work is maintained by an endowment of $1,000 yearly from Mr. and Mrs. Stokes, with annual donations from the Thermoid Rubber Company, the Joseph Stokes Rubber Company, the Contemporary Club, and from other friends.

The social service department of the Contemporary Club supervises the nursery work and assumes the raising of the other necessary funds.


The Junior League of Trenton, a member of the Association of Junior Leagues of America, after contributing to and working with many of the social agencies of Trenton found that there was a glaring need in this city for an institution to give temporary care to babies and children under three years of age who were deprived of the normal home surroundings.

In the daily rounds of the social worker were found children of deceased parents, of ill parents, foundlings, and many others in distressing conditions. With the idea of sheltering and improving the health of these unfortunates until they were adopted or until their home conditions were bettered, the Junior League opened on June 1, 1925, the Junior League Baby Shelter at 211 East Front Street, occupying the second and third floors with a capacity of nine beds and with a resident graduate nurse in charge.

These children, under medical supervision, are given the finest opportunity for physical improvement. Under the growing demand for more beds, the shelter was moved on July 1, 1926, to 82 North Clinton Avenue its present home, which now has sixteen beds. This institution is supported by the Junior League through its various entertainments and other money-making enterprises.


The Trenton Colored Day Nursery had its initiative in Shiloh Baptist Church, of which the Rev. J. A. White is the pastor. With money contributed by the church, supplemented by gifts from the Trenton Times, the trustees of the Trenton Day Nursery and others, a house at 118 Belvidere Street was bought and remodelled. The building is fully equipped. There is a playground with accessories. The nursery is under the direction of a board of trustees elected annually and is supported by contributions from the public.

The present officers are: Mrs. Fannie Stewart, president; Mrs. Lena Binn, first vice-president; Mrs. Henry J, Austin, second vice-president; Mrs. Louise White, recording secretary and mother of nursery; Mrs. Martha Harvey, assistant secretary; and the Rev. J. A. White, treasurer.

The nursery takes care of about three hundred fifty children monthly.

VII. Miscellaneous Organizations


The Ministerial Union was organized more than forty years ago and during that time has met once a mouth for the discussion of questions related to church work. The officers for 1927-28 are as follows: president, the Rev. John Goorley; vice-president, the Rev. Gilbert G. Press; secretary. the Rev. George H. Ingram.


The Council of Churches, as the Inter-Church Federation at the first was called, was organized October 23, 1906. The promoter of the organization and first president was the Hon. William M. Lanning. The Rev. Hugh B. MacCauley, D.D., was the first secretary. These two officers were earnest supporters. For the first years the federation raised a budget for the care of the poor of the city. William Solaini was superintendent in this ministry. Finally it was decided that an organization reaching a larger portion of people of the city should have charge of this work. In 1923 it was decided to change the name. The Rev. George H. Ingram was chosen executive secretary and he has continued in that office until the present. The principal work of the council is to care for services in institutions on Sundays, to hold open-air services during the summer, to hold noon theater meetings during Holy Week, and in various ways to promote the general matters of the Kingdom. The office is at 806 Trenton Trust Building. The Rev. William Thomson Hanzsche is the present president.


The Needlework Guild is an organization of English origin and was adopted in this country in 1858.

The Needlework Guild of America, of which the Trenton guild is a branch, is a non-sectarian organization. The object is to collect and distribute new, plain, suitable garments, to meet the great need of hospitals, homes and other charities, and to extend its usefulness by the organization of branches. The plan of work is very simple. The annual contribution of two or more new articles of wearing apparel or household linen, or a donation of money, constitutes membership in a branch of which men, women, and children may become members.

The Trenton branch was organized in 1896, in the home of Miss Elizabeth A. Smith. In 1927 nearly six thousand garments were collected and distributed to twenty-seven local charities. For several years the guild has supported two French orphans, besides contributing money for relief work in the city of St. Quentin, France, which was adopted by the national society. The Needlework Guild owes much to the Trenton Chamber of Commerce, which has widely advertised the work, and also to the retail merchants of Trenton, who have a division of their own, and who contribute hundreds of garments annually to be distributed by the guild.

The guild has a present membership of about three thousand. Officers are Miss Mary S. Atterbury, honorary president; Miss Caroline E. Nixon, president; Mrs. J. Ridgway Fell, first vice-president; Mrs. John N. Brooks, secretary; Miss Edna V. Skillman, treasurer; and Mrs. Frank Fell, chairman of the executive committee.


The first probation officer, Charles H. Edmond, was appointed in 1900 under the State law passed that year. He served until 1917 when William N. Morrison was appointed as chief probation officer to succeed him, and he still holds the office. The Probation Department prepares case investigations of all criminal cases before the Mercer County Criminal Court for the information of the Court when passing judgment. About 6o per cent of the offenders are placed on probation, and during the entire twenty-seven years of probation in Mercer County, less than 15 per cent have been returned to Court for violation of the conditions of probation or on new charges. January 1, 1928, there were 1021 on probation - 924 male and 97 female probationers. The Mercer County Probation Department assumes the supervision of probationers from the police courts of Trenton and since the enactment of the Federal Probation Law has been supervising federal cases pending the appointment of the federal probation officer.


The Church Mission of Help is a nation-wide organization working under the auspices of the Episcopal diocese of New Jersey, with a local branch in Trenton located at 405 Wilkinson Building. This branch was first organized in 1920 under the Board of Christian Social Service, The bishop of the diocese, the Right Rev. Paul Matthews, D.D., is honorary president, and it was under his guidance and direction that the organization was established.

The members of the board are men and women representatives of the diocese, a district of New Jersey which takes in fourteen Counties.

Its purpose is to give aid to young women in distressful circumstances, without regard to race, color, or religious affiliation. The organization aims to enlist the advice and cooperation of all available agencies, judicial, legal, medical, and charitable, in caring for its charges and their illegitimate offspring. It provides clothing for the mothers and layettes for the babies, and where necessary secures hospital care or shelter during confinement for mother and child. It follows up all cases with individual guidance and endeavors to secure employment under favorable conditions for those who may need it. It aims to reconcile the erring to their families where estranged and seeks to put them in touch with friends, and particularly with the religious bodies to which they may severally belong. In one word, the Church Mission of Help acts as the sympathetic friend, counsellor and protector of these unfortunates at the most crucial period in their young lives, when, perhaps forsaken by their relations and friends and frowned upon by the world, they are helpless and despairing.

The staff consists of an executive secretary, who acts also as case supervisor of the work done in the diocese; an office secretary, whose interest is the office and the necessary records that are kept for the benefit of those who are helped by the organization; and a case worker for the colored girls in Trenton. There is a great field for such a worker, and results are being shown by the number of girls being reached through this worker, who is also a trained nurse. This organization, covering such a large territory, has two branch offices, one at Elizabeth with a case worker and office secretary, and another at Camden, with a case worker in that office.


The Trenton Travelers' Aid, an organization affiliated with other like societies existing in the chief centers, assists travellers who are lost, stranded, discouraged or who might otherwise be victimized by unscrupulous persons. Since its inception in 1926, it has assisted 1,364 persons, including 102 immigrants in one year. Previous to this time the International Institute and Mt. Carmel Guild handled this type of work in addition to their regular duties. The demand increased so rapidly that it was deemed advisable to provide an executive secretary and assistant on a full-time schedule at railroad, trolley and bus terminals to give their constant attention to this important matter. The Travelers' Aid cooperates with private and public social service organizations and other like bodies. The present officers are: president, Kenneth W. Moore; first vice-president, Mrs. Edward L. Katzenbach; second vice-president, Mrs. Louis de Valliere; secretary, Mary L. Johnston; executive secretary, Fannie Herring; assistant, Marion Gilbert. An executive board of twenty directs the activities of the society.


Some twenty years after the formation of the State Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in 1868, the Mercer County branch was established in Trenton. The first president was the late William Hancock, father of William S. Hancock, for many years prominently connected with Trenton's philanthropic enterprises. The first secretary was Captain John Matheson, an ex-sea captain. Other charter members were Judge G. D. W. Vroom, S. E. Kaufman, D. Cooper Allison, Colonel Thomas S. Chambers, Lewis Parker, cashier of the Trenton Savings Fund Society, and Dr. William A. Clark. Although the activities of the society lapsed for a time, it was later brought to life by the efforts of Dr. Laura H. Satterthwaite and Mrs. Alton S. Fell. It is prepared to investigate any case of abuse of any animals within its jurisdiction. The present officers are: Fred J. Wert, president; C. Earl Pitman, vice-president; Dorothy T. Clark, treasurer; and Mrs. Charles B. Kennedy, secretary. The agent of the society is Leon A. Shockley.

VIII. Some Former Benevolent Organizations


One of the earliest of the societies to minister systematically to the poor and needy appears to have been an association of well-known women who, over a century ago, formed an organization known as "The Female Benevolent Society of Trenton and Its Vicinity." The first meeting of the society was held in the Young Ladies' Academy March 17, 1820, when an organization was effected and a constitution adopted. The officers chosen at this meeting were Mrs. Elizabeth Stockton, first directress; Miss Ann Belleville, second directress; Miss Julia Ann Rhea, secretary; and Miss Theodosia Hunt, treasurer. Among other members appear names well known in that period of Trenton history: Richey, Higbee, Woodruff, Halsted, Beatty, Barnes, Cadwalader, Gordon, Glentworth, McCall, Paxson, Southard, Stryker, Beasley, Woodruff and Armstrong. The minute book of the society, covering the period from 1820 to 1843, is in possession of the Free Public Library and makes interesting reading. The minutes of the society were fully and neatly kept and the accounts of the treasurer duly audited.

The object of the society was to provide fuel, provisions, clothing and bedding for the needy, and the funds to obtain these articles were raised partly from the annual dues of the members ($1) and partly from the contributions of the charitably disposed. A committee was appointed to solicit donations and a visiting committee chosen to ascertain the needs of worthy persons and provide for their relief. Notices of the meetings were printed in the newspapers and given out by the churches. Semi-annual meetings were held in the homes of members and in the lesson room of the Presbyterian Church. Supplies were purchased and stored under the charge of a steward. Garments and bedding were made and distributed. Worn clothing and shoes were solicited and given away and wood - there is no mention of coal - was bought and distributed. At the end of the first year it was reported that the sum of $44.39 had been contributed by the citizens of Trenton. A gift of fifty loaves of bread from one person was also acknowledged. An organization known as "The Trenton Board of Relief" was thanked for a gift of $50.

The minute book closes with the annual meeting held November 12, 1843, when the treasurer reported that there was a balance in the cash account of $37.44. The largest amount of cash received in any one year (1841) appears to have been $164.67. How lmg the society continued to function after 1843 does not appear, as the record ceases at that time. Doubtless when this society went out of existence its place was taken by one or more similar organizations, since there must have always remained urgent need for providing relief for the poor and indigent


This society was the outcome of the Dorcas Society established in 1840 and was organized fifty years age, December 14, 1878. The first officers were: Mrs. W. B. Dayton, first directress; Mrs. Buchanan, second directress; Miss Anna Hall, treasurer; and Mrs. Fuller, secretary. Fifteen district visitors were appointed and an executive committee chosen which purchased provisions and clothing material. Orders for coal were also given out. Sewing at fixed prices was provided for applicants, which was paid for in stores in the society's keeping. The society was disbanded in 1881, but in the following year was reorganized with the following officers: Mrs. Gummere, president; Mrs. Buchanan, vice-president; Miss Hall, treasurer; Miss Abbot, secretary; and eighteen district visitors.

At the annual meeting in 1895 it was reported that relief had been given to upwards of two hundred families during the year by the society. The officers at that time were Mrs. Charles Snowden, president; Mrs. William E. Clark, vice-president; Miss M. M. Johnson, secretary; and Mrs. David Warman, treasurer. The society was supported by the annual contributions of members and others. A legacy was received in 1905, the interest of which was used in the work of the society. The society was incorporated in 1905. In 1911, the officers were Mrs. David Warman, president; Miss Elizabeth Farrand, secretary; and Mrs. L B. Hartman, treasurer. The society continued its activities until the early years of the present century when it went out of existence.


Among the religio-charitable institutions now defunct, the Bible Readers' Aid Society has had perhaps the longest period of usefulness in the community. The society was established in 1883 and continued its work up to 1925, when the association went out of existence and its activities were taken over by the Y.W.C.A. to which its property, including its Montgomery Street building, was made over. Among those who were instrumental in establishing the society were Mrs. James Ronan, Mrs. Ezra M. Hunt, Mrs. Ellen P. Reeve and Mrs. Ridgeway. Among the well-known women who from time to time have served in an official capacity were Mrs. H. C. Stull, Mrs. James Ronan, Mrs. E. R. Walker, Mrs. H. C. Moore, Mrs. W. I. Vannest and Mrs. R. P. Wilson. Those serving on the advisory board included W. I. Vannest, D. Reeve, H. C. Moore, Edwin R. Walker, Hugh H. Hamill and James Ronan. Miss Cordelia F. Cook, whose labors as Bible reader began in 1894, served in that capacity for nearly thirty years, up to the time the society ceased to function.

The object of the society was to provide religious instruction and temporal aid to the sick and the poor, the neglected and the unchurched. The society had its headquarters in its own building on North Montgomery Street, near Academy, and the place was popularly known as the "Montgomery Street Mission." Regular mission services and a Sunday school were maintained here. In addition mothers' meetings, a sewing class for girls, and a kindergarten were conducted. The work of the society was supported entirely by voluntary offerings, and enlisted the services of a large number of religious and charitably disposed persons.


One of the former enterprises for the relief of the down-and-outers was a project started in the '90's by Thomas M. Terradell, a local character of the Colonel Mulberry Sellers type. With some money of his own and the contributions he was able to secure from those he had interested, he bought a number of small properties in the block beyond Coalport and bounded by Jefferson, East Carroll, Ewing and Barclay Streets and used the buildings as temporary lodging houses for wayfarers. Later on be erected on the site a substantial four-story brick structure, 50 by 175 feet, known as Terradelphia. How he expected to utilize so large a building does not appear, for he seems to have occupied only the basement and first story for his charitable purposes. In the basement there was a work-room where the inmates sawed and cut up wood which was sold, thus providing funds to defray the cost of their lodging and keep. On the ground floor were the mission chapel, the dining-room, baths and lodging-rooms. Tramps and derelicts, occasional and regular, were cared for, the daily number ranging from forty to one hundred and fifty. Every inmate was required to work out the full cost of his board and lodging. The enterprise was not able to sustain itself and in the early part of the century was compelled to discontinue its operations. Subsequently it was conducted for a time as a lodging house by the Salvation Army.

Mr. Terradell died in 1928.


This association was organized in 1916 and continued its operations for six years when its affairs were wound up and it went out of existence owing to the lack of adequate public support. The association maintained an office in the Broad Street Bank Building with a paid secretary in charge. The purpose of the association as stated was service to the individual and the family in the form of relief and social betterment and it sought close cooperation with other social agencies of the city, seeking to act as an auxiliary and clearing house. Among those who fathered the association and participated in the management were John A. Campbell, C. Edward Murray, Robert K. Bowman, W. J. B. Stokes, Karl G. Roebling, S. E. Kaufman, Dr. Martin W. Reddan, Jonas A. Fuld, Edward L Katzenbach, Thomas F. Waldron and William B. Maddock. Miss Hannah L. Longmore was the active secretary in charge of the office. For a period the association was successful in the work it set itself to do and received a full measure of popular support. In its financial statement for 1920 it reported total contributions of nearly $30,000 and an expenditure for relief of $17,000. Administration and office expenses totalled about $5,000. On its list were registered one thousand five hundred individuals and families whose cases were investigated and needs ministered to. Visits and consultations amounted to some four thousand. No charges were ever made that the association was not doing a needed and efficient work or that funds were not economically administered, but somehow the public interest seemed to languish and adequate support was not forthcoming. When the association closed its doors in 1922 there were no outstanding debts and a small balance remained in the treasury.


IX. Cemeteries

Roman Catholic and Jewish cemeteries are listed under their respective organization names in the chapter, "Churches and Religious Institutions," as are also graveyards adjoining the churches.


Mercer Cemetery was organized in 1843, the incorporators being Charles C. Yard, Joseph C. Potts, Samuel Lloyd, Alexander H. Armour, David Witherup and Joseph A. Yard.

A purchase was made of some fifteen acres of land fronting on South Clinton Avenue in a neighborhood where there were then few or no buildings, and a stock company formed with a capital of $20,000. At the present time few burials are taking place in this cemetery, as most of the available space is occupied. The present officials of the institution are Albert H. Atterbury, presiderit, and Louise Decker, secretary, who, with Joseph L. Bodine and Lewis C. McClurg, are the trustees.


Riverview Cemetery, or rather a small portion of it included in the present grounds, was originally a burying plat belonging to the Society of Friends The property was acquired by the society in 1685 from John Lambert, and was a portion of his estate. According to the minutes of the Chesterfield Meeting the first burial to take place here was that of John Brown, one of the original colonists, who died in that year. Previous to its acquisition by the Quakers, tradition says that it was an Indian burying ground, which seems probable from the fact that the soil in the vicinity has yielded many Indian relics. The plat was used exclusively by the Quakers up to 1858, when they sold some two or three acres of their holdings to a company which was formed in that year for acquiring the property and adjoining land for cemetery purposes. Jacob M. Taylor, who was the owner of several acres of land in the vicinity, formed a stock company in association with Isaac Stephens, William S. Yard, David Witherup, John K Smith and William M. Force. The company was incorporated February 26, 1858. Jacob M. Taylor was the first president of the corporation and John K. Smith secretary and treasurer. From time to time additional land was secured until now the tract embraces about fifty acres. Included within its boundaries was an estate known as "Pine Grove," at one time in possession of Joseph Bonaparte. The present number of stockholders is thirty-one and the officers are Frederic Barlow, president, William H. Atkinson, secretary and treasurer, as well as superintendent. Among the stockholders are Charles S. Van Syckel, N. Robert Montgomery, John S. Vannest, A. Crozer Reeves, Edward A. Stokes and the estate of William S. Stryker. William H. Atkinson has (1928) completed twenty‑five years in the office of superintendent. The lot owners number about six thousand five hundred and the total number of burials for the past seventy years is estimated at thirty thousand.

The ancient Quaker plat, known as "Lambert's burying ground," contains the remains of the earliest settlers in Trenton, probably including Mahlon Stacy himself. Only two or three of the old graves are marked by stones, as it was not the custom of the primitive Quakers thus to identify the graves. Two stone slabs adjoining each other indicate the spot where John Bainbridge and his wife were buried and bear the same date 1732. The third slab in the row evidently once bore an inscription, but the name cannot now be deciphered.

There is a section reserved for Civil War veterans, which was provided and deeded to the city by the late Chancellor Henry W. Green in 1862, and the Mercer County board of freeholders have since added to the plat.

One of the most venerable figures in the early days of this community, whose body was removed to this cemetery, was the Rev. James Francis Armstrong, for fifty years pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Trenton in union with the church in Maidenhead (Lawrenceville) who died January 19, 1816.

Representatives of many leading Trenton families are buried here, including such once-prominent persons as John A. Roebling, designer and builder of the Brooklyn Bridge, William S. Stryker, the historian, Associate-Justice Bennet Van Syckel, Chancellor Henry Woodhull Green, Bishop John Scarborough, Garret D. W. Vroom, Chief Justice Charles Ewing, Samuel K. Wilson, Chief Justice Mercer Beasley, General Gershom Mott, U.S. Senator Frank O. Briggs, Thomas Maddock one of the earliest of Trenton's potters, and Dr. Charles Conrad Abbott, author and naturalist, on whose tombstone appears the following inscription: "In this neighborhood Dr. Abbott discovered the existence of Palcolithic man in America." A notable national figure interred in the cemetery is Major General George B. McClelIan, who was buried here in 1885 and to whose memory was erected in 1903 an imposing granite shaft surmounted by an American eagle.


Greenwood Cemetery Association was incorporated March 12, 1874.

The original incorporators were as follows: William W. Ward, Joseph McPherson, Charles L. Pearson, John Woolverton, Sylvester Dana, Thomas P. Marshall, David S. Howard, Abram F. Quick, Nathaniel Britton, John J. Ford.

Under the provisions of their act of incorporation it is provided that on the sale of any or all the plats in said cemetery, not less than 5 per cent of the net proceeds shall be appropriated and funded for the further embellishment and maintaining and improving fences and other accommodations of the cemetery grounds.

An interesting provision of the act of incorporation is that "any association or persons for burial purposes and also any religious society may purchase and hold lots in said cemetery adjacent to each other in which they may bury, agreeable to any rites and ceremonies of their own, subject only to the rules and regulations adopted by the board of directors of said cemetery association."

The land occupied by this cemetery was originally what was known as the "Anderson Farm," and was purchased from the Andersons by the Cedar Grove Land Association. When this association failed to function the land was taken over by the Greenwood Cemetery Association. The original conveyance of land to the Greenwood Cemetery comprised about one hundred and twenty acres, out of which for the opening of roads on each side of the cemetery, and the extension of Greenwood Avenue through a portion thereof, there still remain about one hundred acres for cemetery use.

The mausoleum erected in the cemetery grounds is private, independent of the cemetery, although when the cemetery association consented to the erection of this mausoleum within its grounds it reserved to itself the right to charge for services in opening and closing crypts, and the maintenance of the structure itself.

The present officers of the association are as follows: president, Harry A. Ashmore; vice-president, William H. Brokaw, Jr.; treasurer, Adam Exton; and secretary, George W. Macpherson.



In April 1802 a committee was appointed by the mayor and John Beatty to buy a place for the burial of the poor of the city. A tract on Brunswick Avenue (Road) of two acres owned by Nathan Beakes was purchased about 1804. Gallows Hill is that rise of land on Brunswick Avenue with its peak at Paul Avenue. The cemetery was abandoned many years ago.


The Trenton Cemetery was established in 1837 by Elisha Gordon. In 1838 The Trenton Cemetery Company was incorporated. This place of burial was located back from Princeton Avenue, north of Gordon Street. It was divided into four sections by two avenues which intersected, Centre Avenue being about on the line of Chapel Street and Cross Avenue running north of Gordon Street. The cemetery had 572 burial plots, some irregular in shape. Burials were made there for a period, but the place was finally abandoned for that purpose because of the nature of the soil (clay ground). 3

3 Schuyler, A History of St. Michael's Church, pp. 188-9.


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